Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

Unlocking the Code of Health: Illuminating the Path to a Thriving Medical System

Unlocking the Code of Health: Illuminating the Path to a Thriving Medical System

In the intricate tapestry of a nation’s prosperity, nothing weaves a more profound impact than the state of its healthcare system. The vitality of its citizens, the resilience of its communities, and the promise of a prosperous future all hinge on the health and wellness of the population. A healthy population is a productive one, as it reduces absenteeism, increases workforce efficiency, and stimulates economic growth.

Yet, as we embark on this journey through the labyrinth of healthcare, one question looms above all: How can we chart the course to assess and improve a country’s medical system, ensuring a brighter, healthier tomorrow for all? Evaluating the medical system of a nation is a complex endeavor that requires a comprehensive approach to several factors we will delve deeper into later.

One indicator that may be used to assess the effectiveness of the medical industry is the mortality rate. From the data provided by World Development Index, countries with high death rates, such as the Central African Republic, Niger, South Sudan, and many others, have poor healthcare systems, as seen in the visual below:

Furthermore, there exists a strong correlation between CVDs, cancer, diabetes and other illnesses that significantly impacted the mortality rate indication for both males and females. This implies that countries experience high mortality rates due to the increasing rates of the above-mentioned illnesses and diseases. Also, an implication of the absence of some healthcare services such as a lack of efficient medical professionals may be valid as well in such a case.

As a matter of fact, the presence of medical professionals that can assist society and offer health care is one of the most important measures of how well the medical sector is doing. Therefore, one potential solution is enhancing the availability of medical professionals that are prone to doing their job effectively.

There exists a weak correlation between the availability of nurses and midwives and the increasing rates of mortality. This is because an effective team of well-experienced nurses and midwives can strongly lead to a decrease in the number of deaths per hospital. The top 5 nations with the highest mortality rates also have the lowest number of nurses and midwives.

Another potential solution involves increasing expenditures in the healthcare field to gain access to more promising and efficient results. In order to improve the health of their medical industry, the nations with greater rates of mortality have to gain insight from the experience of those with developed healthcare systems, where a significant percentage of the more developed countries’ expenses goes to health expenditures (ex: United States, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway etc.) Higher expenditure on healthcare implies higher expenditure on more enhanced medical professionals whose primary role is to save the day by decreasing mortality rates. Moreover, we can see that while less developed nations such as South Sudan and many others have far greater mortality rates (as discussed earlier), they almost all have a lower number of health expenditures too.

Countries with high mortality rates should prioritize expanding their nurse and midwife workforce. This can be achieved through targeted recruitment, better training opportunities, and incentives to retain experienced healthcare professionals. In nations with a scarcity of healthcare workers, it is crucial to consider redistributing them from regions with surplus staff to areas with greater need. This can help ensure more equitable access to healthcare services and reduce mortality disparities.

Also, the observation that less developed nations with higher mortality rates also have lower health expenditures highlights the need for increased investment in healthcare infrastructure, training, and resources. Adequate funding can have a significant impact on healthcare accessibility and quality.

In conclusion, the state of a nation’s healthcare system is a complex web created by several kinds of variables. According to the results of our investigation, nurses and midwives are vital in determining healthcare outcomes, and there seems to be a link between their availability and death rates. Key suggestions to improve patient care and results included strengthening the healthcare workforce through recruiting, skill development, and equitable distribution.

Furthermore, the evidence indicated a clear link between less health expenditures and higher mortality rates in several less developed nations. This emphasizes the urgent need for increased funding and resources to bridge healthcare disparities and improve the well-being of vulnerable populations.

As we journey towards a brighter future, let us remember that the path to a thriving medical system lies in unity, innovation, and data-informed decision-making.

The Syrian Refugee Crisis

The Syrian Refugee Crisis

The Syrian refugee crisis is one of the world’s biggest challenges. The war in Syria destroyed the country, killed and injured thousands of people, and displaced millions into other countries. Asylum countries are suffering from this crisis and facing many challenges. The continuation of the war will not spare the west and especially Europe because the smuggling of migrants via death boats will not stop but will increase if no serious actions were taken.

The main result of the Syrian war was the large displacement of Syrians to foreign countries. It is creating a big refugee crisis that needs direct measures to be taken to end the war. Millions of people were affected and spilled into surrounding countries. The continuation of the war has displaced more than half of Syria’s population from their homes, and an estimated 15.3 million Syrian nationals will need emergency aid in 2023. An average of 4.6 million refugees per year were outside Syria between years 2011 and 2021.

Since the beginning of the war in 15 march 2011, the number of Syrian refugees started increasing. The numbers increased quickly and significantly each year by year especially between 2011 and 2017. After year 2017, the numbers increased slightly and the numbers were approximately the same. In the first six years, the war was very violent and tough, this obliged many Syrians to flee from the country and search for safer places in foreign countries.

The root cause should be tackled and a peaceful settlement should be forced by great nations to end the war. Under the supervision of the UN, voluntary repatriation for Syrian refugees should be offered and those who don’t wish to return to their home country should be offered a chance to move to a third country because asylum countries like Lebanon for example can’t bear the refugee crisis anymore. Big nations should take responsibility and unburden the effects of the Syrian migration on Asylum countries by financially supporting them and by finding alternatives.

Parties who are part of the Syrian war should be brought into serious and continues discussions and meetings to reach an amicable solution that makes no party in a stronger position. Guarantees must be provided for people who wish to return to Syria and safe areas must be secured for them. Direct actions to increase the financial aid given to hosting neighboring countries of Syria like Lebanon and Jordan for example should be a priority. Syrian refugees as well must be offered a chance to move to third countries like USA, Canada, and the EU.

An immediate fair assessment of the refugees should be done to determine those who are in danger if they return to Syria and those who aren’t. Refugees that are still in danger, should be offered a chance to move to third countries that can provide them with a decent life like stated before. At the same time, the reconstruction process should start to encourage refugees to return to their homeland. The Financial support to hosting countries like Lebanon must be in terms of contributing to the development of the infrastructure especially in the sectors of electricity, water, sanitation, public Healthcare, and Education.

We must ensure that all kinds of support must be given for the sake of the Syrian people. All great nations that have their influence in Syria must put an end to this war because extremism and terrorist groups won’t spare any foreign country from their attacks. Neighboring countries and Lebanon one of them are on the edge of social collapse due to the financial and political instability. Thus, direct support must be granted to such countries and the EU along with the USA and Canada should open their doors for resettlement for refugees. If not, illegal immigration via death boats and smuggling of migrants will not stop but instead will rise significantly especially to European countries.

The war in Syria brought destruction, death, poverty, and immigration. The whole world because of globalization is a small village and any war in any place will have effects on other countries. The Russian-Ukrainian war is a good example since the whole world economy is affected. Peaceful means of solving disputes should always be the option because violent extremism is a long-term effect of war and it will generate terrorism that won’t spare humans or countries. The Recommendations and solutions proposed above for the Syrian refugee crisis should be taken into consideration in order to stop the suffering.

The Lebanese Civil War

The Lebanese Civil War

April 13, 1975, an unforgettable date for many, the Lebanese civil war commenced, enduring for a period of 15 years, and causing widespread dispersion and fragmentation in our cherished homeland of Lebanon. This war had led to increased mortality rates, displacement of populations, migration and weakened public health infrastructure, resulting in adverse health outcomes.

The Lebanese civil war in 1975 Clearly showed a huge increase in population (400,000 yearly), mortality rate (800 per 1000 person), death rate (4 times more), immigration (700,000) and refugees (900,000). The evident impact of the war itself, combined with the strain on the healthcare system due to shortages in supplies, security concerns, and a loss of skilled personnel due to immigration, is thus apparent.

However, Lebanese people always tend to solve the problems and adapt to any situation in a positive way. The Lebanese accord of 1990 sought to create a structure for political transformation, effectively concluding the war by means of the Taif agreement. Following the cessation of hostilities, the mortality and death rates returned to their previous stable levels.
In the light of our recent past, Lebanon has been confronted with a significant economic crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside the notorious Beirut Blast and an influx of Syrian refugees in the recent years. As a result, these factors have had an impact on diverse aspects of the Lebanese population’s epidemiological indicators and crucial public health outcomes. The aforementioned factors have caused a disturbance to healthcare systems, infrastructure, and the availability of healthcare services, resulting in a significant strain on the Lebanese healthcare system.
The Syrian war in 2012 clearly showed a huge increase in population (1,200,000 in 3 years), immigration (733,000 in one year) and refugees (1,200,000 in three years) without any considerable effect on mortality rate and death rate (this may be explained by the nature of the Syrian community, being a young society).
Nowadays, Lebanese people must believe in their potential to pass the crisis and get up again to build what was destroyed.

Illuminating Africa: A Journey to Power

Illuminating Africa: A Journey to Power

In a world map coded in vibrant colors, a stark truth emerges—Africa remains shrouded in darkness, with the least access to electricity. This tale unfolds, revealing a problem that denies millions the fundamental right to light and power. Let us begin on a journey to shed light on this topic, investigate its complexities, and present alternative solutions for achieving transformational change. 581 million African do not have access to electricity.

When it comes to energy availability, Africa, a continent rich in resources and diversity, has a significant gap. Widespread power shortages and inadequate infrastructure plague its nations, leaving a significant portion of the population in the dark. This situation not only hampers progress and stifles economic growth but also deprives individuals of basic necessities and opportunities for a better life.

A glance at the bar chart depicting electricity access reveals a somber reality. Country after country in Africa lingers at the bottom of the chart, showcasing alarmingly low percentages. It paints a distressing picture of the challenges faced by the African people, hindering their ability to thrive and prosper.
Furthermore, the chart highlighting rural versus urban electricity access further accentuates the disparity. Rural areas suffer disproportionately, often lacking the necessary infrastructure required to bring power to remote communities. This divide deepens the social and economic gaps, perpetuating the cycle of poverty and limiting opportunities for advancement.

Recognizing the urgency of the problem, governments, international organizations, and corporate companies have joined together to find a solution. The objective is to use Africa’s rich renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, to its advantage.

A comprehensive approach entails investing in renewable energy infrastructure, implementing decentralized energy systems, and fostering partnerships. By tapping into renewable sources, Africa can establish a sustainable and resilient power grid. Solar panels can light up homes, wind turbines can generate electricity, and hydroelectric installations can power regions.
These activities are complemented by the creation of microgrids and minigrids that are customized to the specific needs of rural areas empowering local populations through training and education enables them to manage and maintain these systems independently. This bottom-up approach ensures the sustainability and longevity of the solution.
To overcome financial barriers, innovative financing mechanisms, such as public-private partnerships and green bonds, can be employed. Additionally, policy reforms and streamlined regulations can incentivize investments and facilitate the integration of renewable energy technologies into the existing grid infrastructure.

Pioneering projects across Africa have already demonstrated the immense potential of renewable energy. From the vast solar farms of Morocco to the innovative mini-grids in rural Kenya, success stories abound. Communities once enveloped in darkness now bask in the glow of reliable electricity, empowering residents and propelling local economies forward.
The positive impacts of electrification are far-reaching. Access to electricity enhances healthcare services, enabling the operation of medical equipment, refrigeration for vaccines and medicines, and improved lighting in hospitals and clinics. It also catalyzes educational opportunities by providing adequate lighting for schools, facilitating e-learning programs, and enabling students to study beyond daylight hours.

The path to deliver light and power to Africa is difficult, but not impossible. Governments, international organizations, and the corporate sector must maintain their commitment and partnership. Policy reforms, financial investments, and technology transfer should be prioritized to drive progress.
To accelerate change, global partnerships must be forged to support Africa’s electrification endeavors. Technical expertise, financial help, and capacity-building programs can be provided by developed countries and international organizations. We can collectively pave the way to a brighter future for Africa by sharing knowledge, resources, and expertise—a future in which every individual, regardless of geography, has access to the electricity.

As we conclude our journey, let us remember that by addressing Africa’s electricity access challenge, we unlock a world of possibilities. From improved healthcare and education to expanded economic opportunities, electricity empowers communities and illuminates the path toward progress. Together, let us work towards an Africa that shines brightly, embracing the promise of an electrified future. With concerted efforts, we can ensure that no one is left in the dark and that every corner of Africa thrives under the power of light.

The Path to Sustainable Development

The Path to Sustainable Development

The Power of GDP per Capita Growth in Driving Sustainable Development

In the pursuit of sustainable development goals, economic growth and development play a pivotal role. However, the progress is not uniform across regions, with many facing economic challenges and limited strides. In this blog post, we delve into the significance of GDP per capita growth as a catalyst for sustainable development, as revealed through insightful visualizations.

The world grapples with economic disparities, where some countries experience robust GDP per capita growth while others face stagnation and limited development. The evidence is clear, as symbolized in a global map showcasing GDP per capita growth rates. The varying shades signify the economic challenges that different regions encounter.

In the face of these challenges, a potential solution emerges—learning from countries with remarkable GDP per capita growth rates. By understanding their strategies and policies, we can pave the way for sustainable development. These success stories hold valuable insights for fostering economic growth in other regions.

One visualization that captures our attention is a bar chart displaying the top 5 countries with the highest GDP per capita growth. These nations have achieved remarkable progress, outshining others in economic advancements. Through vibrant bars, we witness their success stories, offering inspiration and valuable lessons.

Success stories of high-growth economies validate the impact of their strategies. These countries have effectively implemented policies that fostered economic growth while advancing sustainable development goals. Data and evidence underline the positive outcomes of their approaches, further affirming their validity.

The visualizations yield key findings with actionable recommendations. It becomes evident that sustainable economic development is crucial for achieving sustainable development goals. Policymakers, organizations, and individuals are encouraged to embrace strategies aligned with the success stories uncovered, fostering sustainable economic growth.

In conclusion, economic growth serves as a cornerstone for building a sustainable future. Leveraging the power of GDP per capita growth, when complemented by strategic policies, can drive sustainable development. Together, we can create a more equitable and prosperous world for all.

Transforming Insights into Action,Armed with newfound understanding, let us embark on a collective journey to transform insights into transformative actions. By championing sustainable economic development, we have the potential to effect lasting change, empowering regions to embrace growth and development in harmony with sustainable principles.

A look into CGC energy usage: Qatar Case

A look into CGC energy usage: Qatar Case

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission status is a critical issue that has been around for many years. It is crucial for humans to reduce CO2 emissions as it is one of the most contributing factors for global warming.

As seen in the graph below, the CO2 total emissions has increased significantly throughout the years, which is entirely alarming and calls for us to take immediate actions now to stop this increase.
Indeed, there is a huge increase in CO2 emissions; however, the human population has also increased    a lot from 1990 until 2022, which means we should also check the CO2 emission per capita.
The below graph shows that the total CO2 emission per capita has decreased slightly from 1990 till 2019 in metric ton. This is due to the usage of more green energy overall.

Now, it is interesting for us to check what countries are contributing the most to this, in order for these issues to be tackled at country level.

The below bar chart shows the highest 10 countries in terms of CO2 emission per capita: the leading country for CO2 emission is Qatar, and the top 3 countries are Arab gulf countries. It is quit interesting to see why Qatar is leading this metric and why. It could be that Qatar has a bad energy management system and does not rely on clean energy.

It is well known that Qatar is one of the leading countries when it comes to producing oil and gas. Thus, it might be directly affected by that.

The Pie chart below shows that 40.96% of Qatar CO2 emission comes from gaseous activities, and 26.36% comes from electricity usage. This shows the 2 major contributors for this high CO2 emission per capita.

That presents an important question: what types of energy does Qatar use in order to provide electricity and services for its population?

Qatar depends 100% on gas, oil and coal to provide energy and electricity. This is a major finding because it means that providing alternative energy sources can tackle this problem and reduce the CO2 emission. The figures below show how much Qatar depends on oil and that Qatar uses 0% of clean energy sources.

What makes it more interesting is that we can see that the total energy consumption had increased in Qatar since the late 90s on a steady trend; below line shows the electric power consumption in Qatar through the years.

Now, it is also clear that even though the electric power consumption has increased a lot, it has dropped from its peak while still maintaining a higher value than the first record of 28.32 in 1990 with a value of 32.76 in 2019. This is mainly impacted by the growing population in Qatar as many people have traveled to Qatar in order to find better opportunities since the 90s. This is also clearly demonstrated in the population line visualization below.

In short, the problem of Qatar’s high CO2 emission is mainly attributed to the zero usage of clean energy for its different activities. For that, a couple of actions are recommended.

  • Using green energy for generating electricity
  • Introducing the solar system as an alternative
  • Implementing environmental regulations and policies to enforce emission standards and promote sustainable practices across industries
  • Investing in research and development in order to find suitable ways to reduce the emission for gaseous activities
  • Using of filters while producing gas and oil
  • Raising the population’s awareness of the importance of adapting sustainable lifestyles to reduce CO2 emissions
  • Abiding with carbon target zero ambitions in order to fight global warming