Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

HIV is a Hidden Epidemic in Europe & the Arab World

HIV is a Hidden Epidemic in Europe & the Arab World

HIV persists as a noteworthy communicable disease in Europe and a substantial risk in the Arab world, posing a significant health challenge. This infection is associated with considerable healthcare costs for treatment and care, a noteworthy mortality rate, and a reduction in life expectancy. The virus specifically attacks the immune system, resulting in a persistent and severe illness with an extended incubation period before symptoms manifest.


The average prevalence from 2005 to 2021 reveals notable trends. While some Arab countries, like Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Iraq, do not consistently report HIV statistics, the available data highlights the prevalence of the disease in Arab countries situated in Africa. In contrast, European countries, particularly Portugal, Latvia, France, and Italy, exhibit higher prevalence rates.

Within the Arab world, there is an upward trend in the percentage of HIV incidences in Yemen, Algeria, Qatar, and Tunisia. Conversely, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Comoros, Sudan, and Libya exhibit a decline in HIV incidence rates.

Within the Euro area, there is an increase in HIV incidences observed in Slovakia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Greece, Lithuania, and Ireland. However, a decrease is noted in the Netherlands, Italy, Slovenia, Portugal, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Spain, and Croatia.

HIV prevalence is higher in European Union countries compared to Arab countries. There was an incline in Arab countries around 2020, while in the European Union, the trend experienced a decrease in 2017, followed by a slight upward movement.

We will be focusing on these countries in the following visuals.

Most countries do not report parameters related to children living with HIV and newly infected children. However, the available data indicates that in Algeria and Morocco, both the number of children infected and the number of new cases are on the rise. In contrast, Djibouti has successfully decreased these numbers, as has Mauritania.

In our selected focus countries, notable instances of HIV infection among the female population are observed. Within Arab countries, Djibouti, Comoros, Mauritania, Sudan, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia exhibit a high prevalence. Similarly, in EU countries, France, Portugal, Latvia, Ireland, Luxembourg, and Italy show a high number of females infected with HIV.

Antiretroviral therapy coverage has seen an increase since 2005 in Djibouti, Mauritania, and Morocco within the Arab world, as well as in Latvia and Bulgaria. The effectiveness of the treatment is reflected in the declining incidence cases observed. However, in Algeria, despite an increase in treatment coverage, the number of incidents continues to rise. A similar situation is noted in Slovenia, suggesting that the treatment alone may not be sufficient to curb the spread of HIV.

Information pertaining to condom use and protected sex is currently unavailable, emphasizing the need to gather this specific dataset.

In conclusion, Europe & the Arab World are far from meeting global HIV targets. Annual new HIV infections from AIDS-related illness are on the rise. While treatment can contribute to reducing the prevalence of HIV in a country, it is just one aspect of a comprehensive approach. Relying solely on treatment is inadequate. Nations should prioritize addressing other impactful factors, including:

  • Implementing prevention programs that effectively reach key populations in substantial numbers.
  • Making special efforts to enhance and extend HIV testing and treatment initiatives.
  • Increasing engagement with the younger demographic.
  • Enforcing effective policies such as mandatory testing for work or residence permits, mandatory testing for marriage, and criminalizing activities such as sex work and drug use or possession for personal use.
Addressing Intentional Homicides in Jamaica: A Strategy Rooted in Health and Education

Addressing Intentional Homicides in Jamaica: A Strategy Rooted in Health and Education


by Charbel Hanna Daou (MSBA 24)


In the heart of the Caribbean, Jamaica faces a startling reality: its soaring intentional homicide rate is not just a statistic, but a looming shadow over the nation’s future. This crisis goes beyond mere numbers, threatening the very fabric of Jamaican society and shaking the pillars of stability and safety that its citizens rely on. It’s a call to action, demanding not just attention, but a deep dive into the root causes and a strategic battle plan to turn the tide against this wave of violence. The urgency to address and mitigate this issue couldn’t be more pressing, as the fate of Jamaica’s well-being hangs in the balance.



Delving into the Crisis


The alarming rise in Jamaica’s homicide rates over the past two decades is a cause for serious concern. The data shows an increase to 52.1 homicides per 100,000 people by 2021, a figure that not only stands out in the Caribbean region but also ranks highest on a global scale. This disturbing trend is indicative of deeper societal and systemic issues that need to be addressed with urgency and precision.



Strategic Approaches Aligned with SDGs


In response to this escalating crisis, two potential strategic solutions, in alignment with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), present themselves as viable pathways to combat the high homicide rates:

  1. Increasing Government Health Expenditure (Aligned with SDG 3): This strategy focuses on the crucial role of health in society. By boosting government spending on health care, particularly in areas like mental health services and addiction treatment, Jamaica could tackle some of the underlying factors contributing to the high rate of homicides. The premise here is that better access to health services, including mental health care, can play a significant role in preventing violence and crime.
  2. Extending the Duration of Compulsory Education (Aligned with SDG 4): Education is a powerful tool for social change. By increasing the years of compulsory education, Jamaica could address several root causes of crime, including poverty and inequality. Education not only equips individuals with knowledge and skills but also opens up opportunities, promoting social mobility and reducing the likelihood of individuals engaging in criminal activities.



Learning from Global Experiences


The experiences of the Russian Federation and Colombia provide valuable lessons. Both countries have demonstrated a correlation between enhanced health expenditures, extended compulsory education, and a decrease in intentional homicides. In contrast, Jamaica’s relatively stagnant approach in these areas might be contributing to its high homicide rates. This comparison suggests that adopting similar strategies could yield positive results in Jamaica.



Government of Jamaica, Here’s What You Should Do


Given the evidence and the success of similar strategies in other countries, the following recommendations are proposed for Jamaica:

  1. Increase Health Expenditure: A substantial increase in health expenditure per capita, specifically by a minimum of $100, could significantly improve the quality and accessibility of health services. This step would not only address immediate health concerns but also contribute to the long-term goal of reducing violence and crime.
  2. Reform Education Policies: Strengthening and reforming education policies to extend the duration of compulsory education to at least 12 years is crucial. This change would have far-reaching effects, not only in educating the populace but also in providing them with better opportunities and reducing the likelihood of them resorting to crime.



In the face of its daunting homicide rates, Jamaica stands at a crucial crossroads. The journey ahead is challenging, but it’s also filled with opportunity. By adopting innovative strategies like increasing health expenditure and extending compulsory education, Jamaica isn’t just fighting crime; it’s reinventing its future. This bold move towards enhancing healthcare and education could be the key to unlocking a new era of peace and stability. Imagine a Jamaica where every citizen is empowered by knowledge and supported by a robust healthcare system. That’s the vision—a safer, stronger Jamaica, thriving in harmony and moving confidently towards a brighter tomorrow.

Seeking Better Health for Arab Countries

Seeking Better Health for Arab Countries


NCDs are the non-communicable diseases which are cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular ,chronic respiratory diseases. Actually,

If you’ve not been exposed to a close person dying or suffering from NCDs, which I doubt to be the case, then you are extremely lucky. But, most probably, you will pass through a stage in your life where you would feel the danger of these diseases and realize how big is this number of people dying each year.

High percentage of Mortality Caused by NCDS from total mortality

Based on the figure above we see that the mortality caused by NCDs from total mortality rate for the displayed Arab countries like Egypt, Lebanon, Somalia, and others are really high. Comparing these values to countries like France, Germany, and UK for example, the percentage for the Arab Countries is about  double and sometimes triple that of France, Germany and UK. The problem is not only in the high percentage but in the fact that it is almost the same throughout 2016 till 2019(no data after 2019). So, what if we don’t deal with this situation? Then, for example, in Somalia, another 30% will die from NCDs this year and then the same happens in the next year and so on.
But, what could be the reason for such high percentages?

Correlation between government expenditure on health and mortality caused by NCDs

Take a look at the above figure. it is clear how the orange color(low government expenditure on health) corresponds to the blue color(high mortality caused by the diseases). and it is clear how the intensities are almost not changing through the years for each country. In other words, governments are not changing their expenditure on health which is leading to keeping the mortality as is.

So, the solution seems to be clear. Increasing government expenditures on health will do the job as displayed and this is validated in the below figure where Germany and UK for example show that the higher percentage of government expenditure on health has led to lower percentage of mortality caused by NCDs from total mortality.

But, what are the steps that these Arab countries should follow in order to decrease mortality caused by NCDs?

  • Investment in Healthcare Infrastructure: Allocate funds to improve healthcare facilities.
  • Preventive Healthcare Programs: Develop awareness campaigns and screenings to promote healthy living such as avoiding tobacco and drinking filtered water.
  • Increased Research Funding: Invest in local research and make partnerships with more modernized countries to learn from their strategies in this field for more effective interventions.
  • Health Insurance Expansion: Widen coverage for accessible healthcare services

Countries like Germany, and the UK showcase successful validations of investment, preventive care emphasis, and research funding, correlating with better healthcare outcomes since they have low mortality caused by NCDs from the total mortality as displayed in the previous map.

Moreover, governments can influence private health expenditures, which denote the total spending on healthcare by private entities within a country, excluding public funds. They do so through tax incentives, regulations, subsidies, and partnerships to encourage higher private health spending. In addition the government can raise awareness Campaigns to encourage increasing private health expenditures since more stabilized countries like UK, Germany, France have very high domestic private health expenditures per capita(current US$) as displayed in the figure below compared to the Arab countries mentioned where for example the lowest value is recorded by Sudan in 2018 to be 25$ and the highest which is recorded by Iraq in 2019 is 120$. These are really low values compared to lowest value by UK which is 771$ in 2017 and the highest recorded by Germany in 2018 which is 1252$. So, it is obvious the huge difference in the domestic private health expenditures.


In conclusion, These Arab countries that are experiencing higher mortality rates from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to lower government health spending can learn from successful healthcare models in Germany, France, and the UK. This correlation highlights the urgency for action. Governments in these Arab nations must prioritize investing in healthcare infrastructure, forming partnerships with advanced healthcare systems, and encouraging private health spending. Collaborative efforts between public and private sectors offer a path to narrow healthcare gaps, significantly improving overall healthcare quality and accessibility.

Paying the Price: Lebanon’s Deepening Healthcare Crisis

Paying the Price: Lebanon’s Deepening Healthcare Crisis

Problem Statement: Lebanon is facing a healthcare crisis. With the government’s dwindling support, an increasing share of medical costs is being paid out-of-pocket by citizens, many of whom are already in financial distress. This trend is pushing families into poverty and leaving many without access to essential healthcare services.


Lebanon, once known for its exemplary healthcare system in the Middle East, is now grappling with an unprecedented crisis. The Lebanese healthcare system is in dire straits, with citizens bearing an increasingly unsustainable financial burden for their medical needs. This deepening healthcare crisis is not merely a statistic; it’s a testament to the resilience and despair of a population fighting for their right to health.

Here, we’ll shine a light on the escalating out-of-pocket health expenditure in Lebanon.
This crucial indicator represents the proportion of healthcare costs that individuals are shouldering, a burden that has been growing steadily over the years. Our visual exploration aims to bring into focus the profound implications of this trend for Lebanese families grappling with a healthcare system in turmoil.



  • First visualization takes us on a global journey through a heat map that color-codes countries based on their out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. Lebanon stands out, marked by a distinct hue that signifies one of the highest rates in its region and across the world. This map transcends borders, offering a comparative perspective that underscores Lebanon’s critical position and the urgent need for reform. It’s a visual call to action, urging us to look beyond our immediate surroundings and recognize the shared struggle for accessible and affordable healthcare.

  • The second visualization presents a horizontal barplot that lays bare the relentless climb of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure in Lebanon. Each bar, extending further year by year, is a stark representation of the growing financial load shouldered by Lebanese families. This visual narrative is not just about rising costs; it’s about the human stories behind these numbers—stories of sacrifice, tough choices, and resilience in the face of a healthcare system that demands more than many can afford.

A Call to Heal Lebanon’s Healthcare System:

Lebanon’s healthcare crisis, marked by rising out-of-pocket costs, extends a plea for international intervention. As the Lebanese government grapples with its own challenges, the need for external support becomes critical. This call for aid isn’t just about funds; it’s a call for global solidarity, expertise, and resources to help a nation in distress.

It’s time for the world to unite in support of Lebanon, offering a lifeline to its healthcare system and hope to its people.

Made By: Rawad Salem

Unlocking the Code of Health: Illuminating the Path to a Thriving Medical System

Unlocking the Code of Health: Illuminating the Path to a Thriving Medical System

In the intricate tapestry of a nation’s prosperity, nothing weaves a more profound impact than the state of its healthcare system. The vitality of its citizens, the resilience of its communities, and the promise of a prosperous future all hinge on the health and wellness of the population. A healthy population is a productive one, as it reduces absenteeism, increases workforce efficiency, and stimulates economic growth.

Yet, as we embark on this journey through the labyrinth of healthcare, one question looms above all: How can we chart the course to assess and improve a country’s medical system, ensuring a brighter, healthier tomorrow for all? Evaluating the medical system of a nation is a complex endeavor that requires a comprehensive approach to several factors we will delve deeper into later.

One indicator that may be used to assess the effectiveness of the medical industry is the mortality rate. From the data provided by World Development Index, countries with high death rates, such as the Central African Republic, Niger, South Sudan, and many others, have poor healthcare systems, as seen in the visual below:

Furthermore, there exists a strong correlation between CVDs, cancer, diabetes and other illnesses that significantly impacted the mortality rate indication for both males and females. This implies that countries experience high mortality rates due to the increasing rates of the above-mentioned illnesses and diseases. Also, an implication of the absence of some healthcare services such as a lack of efficient medical professionals may be valid as well in such a case.

As a matter of fact, the presence of medical professionals that can assist society and offer health care is one of the most important measures of how well the medical sector is doing. Therefore, one potential solution is enhancing the availability of medical professionals that are prone to doing their job effectively.

There exists a weak correlation between the availability of nurses and midwives and the increasing rates of mortality. This is because an effective team of well-experienced nurses and midwives can strongly lead to a decrease in the number of deaths per hospital. The top 5 nations with the highest mortality rates also have the lowest number of nurses and midwives.

Another potential solution involves increasing expenditures in the healthcare field to gain access to more promising and efficient results. In order to improve the health of their medical industry, the nations with greater rates of mortality have to gain insight from the experience of those with developed healthcare systems, where a significant percentage of the more developed countries’ expenses goes to health expenditures (ex: United States, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway etc.) Higher expenditure on healthcare implies higher expenditure on more enhanced medical professionals whose primary role is to save the day by decreasing mortality rates. Moreover, we can see that while less developed nations such as South Sudan and many others have far greater mortality rates (as discussed earlier), they almost all have a lower number of health expenditures too.

Countries with high mortality rates should prioritize expanding their nurse and midwife workforce. This can be achieved through targeted recruitment, better training opportunities, and incentives to retain experienced healthcare professionals. In nations with a scarcity of healthcare workers, it is crucial to consider redistributing them from regions with surplus staff to areas with greater need. This can help ensure more equitable access to healthcare services and reduce mortality disparities.

Also, the observation that less developed nations with higher mortality rates also have lower health expenditures highlights the need for increased investment in healthcare infrastructure, training, and resources. Adequate funding can have a significant impact on healthcare accessibility and quality.

In conclusion, the state of a nation’s healthcare system is a complex web created by several kinds of variables. According to the results of our investigation, nurses and midwives are vital in determining healthcare outcomes, and there seems to be a link between their availability and death rates. Key suggestions to improve patient care and results included strengthening the healthcare workforce through recruiting, skill development, and equitable distribution.

Furthermore, the evidence indicated a clear link between less health expenditures and higher mortality rates in several less developed nations. This emphasizes the urgent need for increased funding and resources to bridge healthcare disparities and improve the well-being of vulnerable populations.

As we journey towards a brighter future, let us remember that the path to a thriving medical system lies in unity, innovation, and data-informed decision-making.