Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

Healthcare Challenges in Nigeria: A Call for Action

Healthcare Challenges in Nigeria: A Call for Action

Imagine waking up every day gripped by the fear of succumbing to poor healthcare, a result of your country’s negligence.

Chukwudi, a 10-year-old Nigerian battling HIV in a nation with the world’s highest mortality rate (164.24/1000 people). Is his fear justified? And what measures can his country take to alleviate his plight?

Identifying the Root Causes

Let’s delve into the factors contributing to this alarming mortality rate.

Nigeria bears the burden of communicable diseases, leading to an unprecedented death toll.

Is this merely coincidence?

Upon examining the rate of HIV transmission among children aged 0 to 14, it’s disheartening to discover Nigeria topping the list once again (second place after South Africa).

But why?

Having pinpointed the primary cause of this high death ratio, let’s explore why Nigeria’s healthcare system remains deficient. While insurance coverage remains dismally low (6% of population), a common plight across many African countries, Nigeria stands out for ranking third-lowest in hospital bed availability on the continent (12.14 per 1000 people), reflecting a dire lack of medical infrastructure.

Proposing Effective Solutions

Amidst these challenges, what potential solutions could prove effective?

Over the years, Nigeria has made strides in reducing its death rate, reaching 13.1 per 1000 persons in 2021, primarily through targeted actions such as immunization campaigns, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs, malaria control initiatives, tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, and partnerships with international organizations and NGOs. However, this progress falls short of the global target of 7.7 per 1000 persons by 2020.



To bdeveloping the healthcare workforce, enhancing access to medicines and equipment, integrating technology, fostering more public-private partnerships (PPPs), and reforming healthcare financing.

With Nigeria’s abundant resources, it is time to overcome these healthcare challenges and provide its people with the peace and security they deserve to lead healthier lives.uild upon this momentum, it is imperative to intensify efforts and implement additional measures, including investing in healthcare infrastructure,

For a brighter and healthier future Chukwudi !

PS: All data presented span from 2013 to 2021.

Beyond Borders: Bridging Child Mortality Divide between Africa and Advanced Nations

In Africa, low birth expectancy remains a significant burden, particularly for children. Several factors contribute to this bleak reality, including communicable diseases, maternal health issues, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis. The problem is further made worse by socioeconomic variables like early marriage, teenage pregnancies, low levels of schooling, and high rates of child dropouts from school. Africa grapples with multifaceted issues that jeopardize the well-being of its youth. We will look at the complicated causes of child mortality in Africa and compare them to advanced countries to underscore the importance of addressing these challenges and the potential pathways toward improvement.

Many African youngsters still lose their lives to communicable diseases. Malnutrition, inadequate resources, poor sanitation, and inadequate access to healthcare services all contribute to the spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis. Advanced countries, on the other hand, profit from extensive public health initiatives and well-established healthcare systems that efficiently monitor, manage, and control disease epidemics. Child mortality rates are also significantly influenced by maternal and prenatal circumstances, underscoring the need for enhanced maternal healthcare services and nutrition initiatives.

Globally, Africa is heavily impacted by HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis cases. These diseases not only have an adverse effect on children’s health and wellbeing but also impede economic growth. In order to effectively tackle these diseases, more funding must be allocated to the healthcare system, as well as access to affordable medication and thorough preventative and treatment plans.
There are significant differences between the healthcare and socioeconomic systems in Africa and more advanced countries. The latters enjoy the advantages of a strong healthcare system, universal access to medical care, and extensive public health initiatives that efficiently contain and manage disease outbreaks. On the other hand, African countries struggle to provide universal access to necessary medical services and prescription drugs due to a lack of resources and fragmented healthcare systems.

Moreover, Socioeconomic factors have a significant impact on health outcomes, particularly for children in Africa. Early marriage and teen pregnancy increase maternal and child health hazards. Early marriage often leads to early pregnancies, increasing the risk of problems during labor for both young mothers and children. Furthermore, limiting access to education reinforces cycles of poverty and impedes efforts to improve health outcomes.
In advanced nations, extensive sex education programs, access to birth control, and higher literacy rates all lead to better maternal and child health outcomes.

Investment in education and healthcare is critical for increasing child survival rates in Africa. Unfortunately, many countries do not commit sufficient resources to these areas, resulting in low education spending and limited access to effective healthcare services. Increased government investment on education and health, together with international support and collaboration, is critical to resolving these discrepancies.

In addition to the numerous problems that African children face, it is critical to highlight the disparity in educational opportunities for girls. Surprisingly, the majority of African children who drop out of primary school are girls, indicating long-standing gender disparities in educational opportunities. Cultural conventions, early marriages, and socioeconomic constraints frequently cause girls to drop out of school, denying them the opportunity to gain critical knowledge and skills. This gap not only perpetuates poverty cycles, but it also increases the health risks for girls and their future children. Addressing the gender gap in education is critical for ending the cycle of child death and promoting sustainable development in Africa.

Addressing short life expectancy at birth in Africa necessitates a holistic approach that addresses both health and socioeconomic factors. Investing in healthcare infrastructure, expanding educational opportunities, empowering women and girls, and enhancing public health systems are all key measures toward increasing child survival rates. Prioritizing these activities and developing international cooperation can help us achieve improved health outcomes and a brighter future for African children.

Balancing Act: “Navigating CO2 Emissions and Harnessing Green Energy Resources”

Balancing Act: “Navigating CO2 Emissions and Harnessing Green Energy Resources”

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been a central focus of global environmental discussions. The issue of increasing CO2 emissions, largely attributed to human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and industrial processes, has gained heightened attention due to its significant implications for climate change.

The last 30 years have witnessed a steady rise in global CO2 emissions, driven by rapid industrialization, urbanization, and an escalating demand for energy. As nations grapple with the challenges of mitigating climate change, understanding the patterns and drivers of CO2 emissions over this period becomes crucial for formulating effective strategies to address and curb the impact of gas emissions on our planet’s climate system.

We uncovered the top 5 countries contributing the most to CO2 emissions: Qatar, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Luxembourg. This discovery prompted a deeper investigation into the root causes of these alarming emission rates. Thus, the main question driving our following analysis is clear:

“What specific sectors are driving the extremely high CO2 emissions as a percentage of total fuel combustion in these nations?”

By scrutinizing the proportional contribution of each sector to the total fuel combustion. What emerged was a striking pattern: across several nations, a substantial portion of CO2 emissions stemmed from the sector of electricity and heat production. This trend was particularly noticeable in nations like Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar. Conversely, in the cases of Luxembourg and the UAE, the sector exerting the most significant impact on emissions was “manufacturing industries and construction.”

This difference in contributing sectors highlights the intricate dynamics involved in shaping the emissions landscape of each country.

Delving deeper into the data, particularly focusing on Qatar, which ranked highest in CO2 emissions per capita, our detailed Scatter Plot Bubble Size visualization revealed a significant insight: a staggering 58.67% of its total emissions from fuel combustion are attributed to “electricity and heat production” Furthermore, 27.13% stems from “manufacturing industries and construction,” with the remaining 13.46% attributed to “transportation.” This breakdown elucidates the dominant contributors to Qatar’s emissions profile and underscores the importance of scrutinizing specific sectors in addressing mitigation strategies.

Further investigations, highlighted the direct relationship between the high CO2 emissions and the lack of Nuclear energy sources / Combustible Renewable and Waste as shown below, highlighting the fact that the lower the usage of alternative green energy sources to generate electricity, the higher the CO2 emissions.


The analysis highlights significantly elevated CO2 emissions in Qatar, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Luxembourg, primarily originating from electricity and heat production, as well as manufacturing industries and construction. This reliance on non-renewable sources, coupled with the absence of Green energy alternatives like Nuclear Plants and Renewable energy, underscores the URGENT need for diversification towards cleaner energy options. To address this, targeted strategies focusing on reducing emissions from high-contributing sectors such as electricity and heat production, manufacturing industries, and transportation are recommended. Additionally, there is a crucial emphasis on accelerating the integration of renewable energy sources and energy-efficient technologies to lessen dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate emissions. Advocating for sustainable practices in the manufacturing and construction sectors, including the use of green building materials and energy-efficient processes, is essential for achieving significant emission reductions.