Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

Shielding Lebanon’s Future: Nurturing a Healthy Tomorrow for the Next Generation

Shielding Lebanon’s Future: Nurturing a Healthy Tomorrow for the Next Generation


“As declared by the united nations Health and well-being are important at every stage of one’s life, starting from the beginning  from the very start.”

A pivotal measure that parents can undertake during the early stages of their children’s lives is to ensure they receive the necessary vaccinations. These vaccinations play a crucial role in preserving the health of the child and contribute collectively to the well-being of society.

A high vaccination rate in countries can lead to:

  • Decrease in individual’s Health Risks
  • Decrease in disease Spread and vulnerability to outbreaks
  • Reduce the strain on Healthcare Systems
  • Economic stability


Alarming Drop in Immunization Rates Among Lebanese Children:


In 2020, Lebanon witnessed a substantial decrease in the percentage of immunization against Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus (DPT), Hepatitis B (HepB3), and measles among children aged 12-23 months. After more than ten years of stability, the immunization rate dropped to 67% in 2021, marking its lowest point in recent history.


Standing Out in a Global Context of Decline:


While middle-income and low-income countries experienced a decrease in immunization percentages in 2019 and 2020, Lebanon stood out with the most significant decline. Comparatively, when pitted against low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries, Lebanon witnessed the highest decrease in the percentages of DPT, Measles, and HepB3 immunization during these pivotal years.

This raises crucial questions about the specific factors contributing to Lebanon’s distinct challenges in maintaining essential childhood vaccination rates.

Economic Struggles Impacting children Immunization:


In 2019, Lebanon experienced a significant economic crisis, resulting in widespread job losses, with the unemployment rate reaching 13% by 2020. The cost of everyday items surged, approximately 85%, creating substantial challenges for individuals to afford medical expenses and seek necessary healthcare. Accessing healthcare has now become a luxury for many citizens, including children, as parents prioritize essential goods over vaccinations for their kids.


In addition, the Lebanese government allocated similar resources in Lebanese Lira to its healthcare system in 2019 and 2020 as it did in 2018. However, the impact of inflation eroded the purchasing power, diminishing the effectiveness of the government’s support, especially given that healthcare costs are often priced in US dollars.

Shielding the Health of the Lebanese :

In the world public health, the ramifications of low vaccination rates against DPT , Measles and HepB3 are far-reaching and dire. The repercussions extend from the heightened risk of individual health issues to the vulnerability of entire communities facing outbreaks. These outbreaks not only strain healthcare systems but also impose a substantial economic burden, creating a global health threat. The gravity of these consequences becomes most evident in the specter of preventable deaths looming over communities.

Recognizing the gravity of these consequences, urgent action is essential. The government must increase its investment in vaccination programs, ensuring free and universal accessibility. It should collaborate with international entities such as World Health Organization and NGOs to get financial support.

These efforts will not only promote individual well-being but also strengthen the communal defense against potential outbreaks, paving the way for a healthier and safer future for all.

Fueling Progress: Clean Cooking Access in Nigeria and Its Economic Growth

Fueling Progress: Clean Cooking Access in Nigeria and Its Economic Growth

Nigeria, a vibrant and populous nation in West Africa, grapples with the critical issue of access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking. As an integral component of daily life, cooking methods profoundly impact the health, environment, and overall well-being of the Nigerian population. The dynamics of clean cooking solutions in Nigeria are closely intertwined with the threads of economic growth, underscoring the necessity for innovative approaches that not only tackle environmental challenges but also foster the nation’s economic robustness and promote inclusive development.

Based on the previously displayed map, it’s evident that the majority of African countries face limited or no access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking. To investigate this trend further, Nigeria has been selected as a focal point to assess whether there have been improvements in this indicator over the years.

It is noteworthy that access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking in Nigeria has shown a positive trajectory, with discernible advancements noted since 2001. This gradual increase can be attributed to a combination of government initiatives, infrastructure development, international support, economic growth, awareness campaigns, technological advancements, and community engagement. Policies and subsidies, investments in energy infrastructure, collaborations with international organizations, and economic development have collectively contributed to making clean cooking fuels more affordable and accessible. Moreover, efforts to raise awareness about the health and environmental benefits of clean cooking, along with advancements in technology, have played crucial roles in promoting the adoption of clean cooking practices across the country.

The rise in Nigeria’s GDP alongside increased access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking is a symbiotic relationship with multiple interconnections. Economic growth, as reflected in the increasing GDP, contributes to improved affordability of clean cooking technologies, fostering a positive impact on household incomes. This economic development empowers the government to allocate resources to initiatives and subsidies that enhance accessibility to cleaner fuels. Moreover, higher GDP facilitates investments in energy infrastructure and research, fostering technological advancements that make clean cooking options more efficient. The overall improvement in public health, heightened environmental awareness, and strengthened international collaborations are additional outcomes of this dual progress. However, recognizing and addressing potential disparities in the inclusive distribution of these benefits remains crucial for a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic relationship between Nigeria’s economic growth and the adoption of clean cooking practices.


The efforts to increase access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking, along with economic growth, align with several United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

SDG 1 – No Poverty: Economic growth, when inclusive, can contribute to poverty reduction, and improved access to clean cooking technologies supports this goal by enhancing the living standards of vulnerable populations.

SDG 3 – Good Health and Well-being: Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking directly impacts health outcomes by reducing indoor air pollution and related health issues.

SDG 7 – Affordable and Clean Energy: The goal of ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all directly relates to efforts to improve access to clean cooking technologies.

SDG 10 – Reduced Inequality: Efforts to ensure inclusive economic growth and equitable access to clean cooking technologies contribute to reducing inequalities within society.

SDG 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities: Urban planning and infrastructure development related to clean cooking technologies contribute to building sustainable cities and communities.

SDG 13 – Climate Action: The adoption of clean cooking technologies aligns with climate action goals by reducing reliance on traditional biomass fuels, contributing to mitigating climate change.

From Crisis to Classroom: Visualizing the Power of External Support

From Crisis to Classroom: Visualizing the Power of External Support



War in the Arab World

Many Arab countries have been through a string of tough wars including World War 1, World War 2, the Gulf War, the Israeli War, and Franco-Syrian War, and many others. These Wars have left a brutal mark on all aspects of life in these countries, making life tough for all the people living there.

Effect of War on Education in the Arab World:

One big area that was affected badly is education. According to the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), which aims to ensure that everyone gets a fair shot of education and lifelong learning opportunities. The following map tracks how many kids were going to school in the Arab countries from 1960 until today.

Analyzing this data:

Education was in short supply from the get-go in 1960. It wasn’t until 1971 that we saw a slow increase in the number of kids going to primary school in some countries. But, it’s important to note that in other places, the numbers stayed way too low. This shows that even though things got a bit better in some spots, there are still serious challenges in making sure every kid gets a good education.


This bar graph indicates a notable pattern concerning primary school enrollment. Rather than having a consistent upward pattern or stable change, the data reflects an oscillation, characterized by fluctuating values each year. It is important to note that the decrease in enrollment coincides with periods of conflict and war in the Arab world, specifically during 1982, 1984, 1990, 1995, 2006, 2010, 2015…These periods represent the war struggles that these Arab countries were witnessing. This correlation highlights the impact of war on educational accessibility.

War in Syria

Syria has a long history of war. It played a role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, participating in the Six-Day War in 1967, and the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Additionally, Syria was also involved in the Lebanese Civil War from 1975 to 1990 as part of the broader regional dynamics.

The most recent and prolonged war is the Syrian Civil War, which began in March 2011 and involved various internal and external factors contributing to these challenges. Due to this significant crisis, millions of Syrians were displaced internally, and others were refugees in neighboring countries and beyond.

Effect of War on Education

The war in Syria has had a bad impact on education. Many schools have been damaged, and ongoing violence has forced closures. Countless students, both internally displaced and refugees, face difficulties continuing their education. Host countries were under pressure in their educational systems because they had to deal with an unexpectedly large arrival of refugees. Students’ educational experiences were disrupted by the conflict, which had a huge impact on their current and future opportunities.

The presented line chart shows the average enrollment trends in pre-primary, primary, and secondary schools over the years.

  • The pre-primary line chart indicates low enrollment, remaining below 10 students throughout the observed period, which emphasizes challenges in early education access.
  • The secondary school enrollment line exhibits moderate fluctuations, ranging between 30 and 77 students over the years suggesting the varying levels of access or interest over the years.
  • The primary school enrollment line stands out with higher average numbers, consistently surpassing 81 students and reaching a peak of 128. These high and more stable enrollment values reflect a more robust foundation in the primary education system.

The three areas witnessed notable and dramatic decreases following the Syrian Civil War highlighting the huge impact of the War on education.

Looking at just primary education tells a powerful story. Even though primary schools consistently had a lot of students, showing how important they are, the graph takes a heartbreaking turn after the Syrian Civil War in 2011. Schools were destroyed, people lost their lives, and families had to leave their homes – some inside Syria and others in different countries. The numbers on the graph don’t just represent students; they tell a story of how the war shook the very foundation of education in Syria. The sharp drop in primary school enrollment is like a reflection of the tough times people went through. It’s not just about rebuilding schools; it’s about rebuilding the support systems and hope that education brings.

Government Expenditure



This line graph illustrates the percentage of government expenditure allocated to primary education in Syria over the years. In 1972, the commitment to primary education stood at 41%, reflecting an investment in this foundational aspect of the educational system. This dedication continued to rise, reaching its maximum at 48% in 1989, indicative of a sustained prioritization of primary education during that period.

However, the subsequent years after 1989 witnessed a notable shift, marked by a huge decrease in expenditure. This decrease in government expenditure on primary education aligns with the broader challenges faced by the country during this period. Conflicts have a significant impact on financing priorities, making it difficult to continue providing the same amount of cash for education.

The Power of External Support

External support, particularly through Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), plays a major role in reducing the educational challenges that people who are affected by war are facing. NGOs often step in to provide vital assistance, especially for displaced children, ensuring they have access to necessary educational resources.

In the context of the Syrian conflict, NGOs have been supporting children who have been forced to leave their homes. These organizations work tirelessly to address the educational needs of displaced children in the countries they seek refuge in.

Example: GHATA schools in Lebanon

Zooming in on Lebanon, an initiative that resembles the impact of external support is the Ghata School. This project is a collaborative effort between the American University of Beirut (AUB) Center of Civic Engagement and Community Service (CCECS) and Kayany Foundation.

The Ghata School exemplifies the power of partnerships between academic institutions and NGOs in providing comprehensive educational support. Through this initiative, Syrian refugees in Lebanon receive not only access to accredited education but also benefit from several digital and soft skills, vocational training, as well as health care.


This shows that due to the help of external support, out-of-school children can join schools for accredited education and improved mental and educational well-being.



Evolving Unemployment Trends: A Comparative Study of Lebanon and the Arab Region

Evolving Unemployment Trends: A Comparative Study of Lebanon and the Arab Region

We’ll explore how Lebanon’s unemployment rates compare with other Arab nations and discuss innovative strategies to address this challenge. Our focus is on understanding the current situation and proposing effective solutions for economic growth and stability.

The Problem of High Unemployment in Lebanon

  • Lebanon’s Struggle: A markedly high unemployment rate compared to the wider Arab world.
  • Comparative Statistics: Lebanon’s unemployment rate stands at 12.76% among those with advanced education, a stark contrast to Qatar’s 0.4%.
  • Regional Perspective: Lebanon’s total unemployment rate of 8.6% amidst the Arab nations.

Proposed Solution:
Adapting to Industry Evolution through Training and Partnerships

  1. Skill Enhancement: Continuously update training programs to stay in sync with evolving industry demands.
  2. Certification and Recognition: Offer certification or accreditation for completed training programs.
  3. Access to Opportunities: Provide resources for job seekers to access these training opportunities.
  4. Collaboration with Industry: Establish partnerships with businesses to create internship and apprenticeship programs.

Detailed Solution Strategy:
Comprehensive Approaches to Address Unemployment

  • Tailored Education: Implement education and training programs specifically designed to meet industry demands.
  • Entrepreneurship and SME Support: Foster entrepreneurship and aid in small business development.
  • Collaborative Efforts: Strengthen ties between educational institutions, government entities, and the private sector.
  • Investment in Growth Industries: Focus on industries with high potential for job creation and economic impact.

Solution Validation:

  • Benchmarking Success: Drawing insights from successful interventions in regions with similar challenges.
  • Pilot Programs and Case Studies: Initiating tests to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies.

Conclusions and Recommendations:

  • Multifaceted Approach: A combination of targeted education and training, entrepreneurial support, and strategic industry investments is recommended for Lebanon.
  • Aiming for Economic Growth: This strategy aims to utilize Lebanon’s larger labor force effectively to bridge the unemployment gap and foster economic growth.
Violence Faced by Women in Specific Nations

Violence Faced by Women in Specific Nations

Women in certain nations across Africa and Oceania face significant challenges due to conflicts that disproportionately affect them, hindering their rights and opportunities.

Gender equality is at the very heart of human rights and United Nations values. This discrimination and violence against women and girls, deeply rooted in the fabric of societies, is persistent and systematic. And in recent years, there has been a recurrence of skepticism against and denial of international standards concerning women’s human rights, gender equality and gender-based violence, while women and girls are increasingly raising voices to demand equality.


Oceania and African countries are the highest when talking about sexual abuse!

African and Oceania countries witness increased cases of gender-based violence, including physical and sexual abuse against women as shown in the United Nations data with Afghanistan, Vanuatu and Equatorial Guinea leading in 2015 (shown in the heatmap).

When Women are exposed to conflict with their husband, women are often vulnerable of what will happen with them whether exploitation, violence, sexual abuse. The cause of their conflicts is vast, and those conflicts can lead the women to be beaten by her husband, and some of them are justifying this act of being beaten. It can start from the last valuable thing which is burning the food when preparing for her husband and with the lowest occurrence (14.33%) and reaching the most valuable point which is neglecting the children which has the highest occurrence (31%), (shown in the bar chart).

The strength of legal rights for all those women differs accordingly to their countries, in the data provided  by the united nations it is shown that the African countries and the island in Oceania are the least when demanding for their rights, however Unites States , Australia, Canada have the highest ratio of women demanding for their rights averaging at 11 out of 12 which can show a correlation between the percentage of female abused sexually and the ratio related to the strength of women legal rights. (shown in the map).

Empowering Women Amid Conflict: Strategies for Equality and Protection in Africa and Oceania

Strengthening legal frameworks to enforce existing laws protecting women’s rights is crucial, alongside providing legal aid and raising awareness. It is also essential for women to be engaging in community dialogues that empower them through economic opportunities, education initiatives, and access to healthcare and support services that can significantly reduce vulnerabilities by raising awareness for women and male on gender roles, in this way reducing the stereotypes that each society can create.

Implementing and constantly monitoring safety measures is pivotal to mitigating instances of violence against women. Regular assessments of the effectiveness of these measures provide insights into what works and what needs improvement, most of the NGO’s target these insights in collaboration with the United Nations. Finally, by facilitating the ease of access to necessities like healthcare, education, shelter, and support services the level of women’s involvement in decision-making roles and well-being increases significantly.

Empowering Women for Peace

The findings highlight the pivotal role of empowering women in African and Oceania regions, demonstrating their profound positive impact on entire communities, aligned with the UN Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG 5) of gender equality. Empowered women act as catalysts for sustainable peace, fostering social and economic development while ensuring stability within some African and Oceania regions. However, the effectiveness of programs aimed at protecting and empowering women hinges on continuous support and robust enforcement mechanisms.

To address these needs, it’s crucial to strengthen legal frameworks, ensuring comprehensive policies are in place to protect and uphold the rights of women. This includes not only enacting laws but also implementing robust enforcement mechanisms to guarantee their efficacy.

Moreover, the recommendations emphasize the necessity of ongoing investment in programs tailored to empower women and elevate their voices in peacebuilding efforts. By amplifying their roles in decision-making processes and community leadership, these initiatives create a more inclusive and resilient society, where women play active roles in shaping peaceful solutions and driving positive change. More NGO’s like KAFA, Fe-male, Abaad etc… should be acting in these countries to secure the good operations of these programs.

Stolen Innocence: The Silent Struggle of HIV-Positive Children

Stolen Innocence: The Silent Struggle of HIV-Positive Children

Every two minutes, a child is infected with HIV, and every five minutes, a child loses their life to HIV-related diseases.



Childhood HIV infection remains a global health crisis, with alarming statistics highlighting the urgency of addressing this silent struggle. While progress has been made, particularly in Africa, where the impact is most significant, challenges persist.


Global Overview:

In Africa, the number of children under 14 living with HIV reached its peak in 2007 at 2.1 million, dropping to 1.3 million. However, this reduction, though significant, is not sufficient, especially when considering that the current figure is still ten times higher than the number seen in the rest of the world. The Sub-Saharan region bears the brunt of this crisis, necessitating targeted interventions.



Transmission and Prevention:

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) remains a primary mode of infection during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key preventive measure, significantly reducing transmission rates. Advances in ART have transformed the prognosis for HIV-positive individuals, enabling longer and healthier lives and lower transmissions.


Impact of ART on New Infections:

The introduction of ART treatment for HIV+ pregnant women in Africa in 2000 led to a remarkable 74% reduction in the number of children newly infected with HIV, highlighting the efficacy of ART in preventing mother-to-child transmission.


Challenges in Access to Treatment:

Despite progress, access to ART for pregnant women in Africa has stagnated. In the past five years, only marginal improvement, with approximately 30% of pregnant women still untreated throughout their pregnancies. Identifying barriers to treatment access and the need for targeted interventions.




The strides made in reducing new HIV infections among children through ART are commendable, yet the battle is far from over. Focused efforts are required to address the persistent challenges in ensuring that all HIV-positive pregnant women in Africa have access to life-saving treatments such as:

  • Scale up access to ART for pregnant women by increasing medication availability and addressing logistical challenges.
  • Conduct comprehensive community education campaigns to raise awareness about HIV testing, treatment, and prevention, with a focus on dispelling myths and reducing stigma.
  • Integrate HIV testing and treatment services into routine maternal and child healthcare to ensure consistent and timely care for pregnant women.

The urgency of this mission cannot be overstated, as it directly impacts the innocence and lives of countless children at risk of falling victim to this silent epidemic.