Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

Reclaiming Women’s Rights in the Arab World

Reclaiming Women’s Rights in the Arab World

In today’s world, where things are moving fast but some old ideas still stick around, let’s talk about something hopeful in the Arab world. More women are learning to read and write, which is amazing. But here’s the tricky part: even though women go to school a lot, they still have a hard time finding good jobs, while guys who didn’t study much do better. Is that fair? It’s like, why go to school more if people still think women should only do certain jobs at home?

In the quest for progress, Arab countries often look to others as role models, aspiring to match the development seen in more advanced nations. But here’s the thing: it’s not just about having the latest gadgets or the tallest buildings. Real progress means changing how people see and treat men and women. It’s like saying, “Hey, everyone should have the same chances, no matter if they’re a guy or a girl.” So, while having awesome things is cool, what makes a country strong is when everyone gets a fair shot and people’s attitudes about men and women start to change for the better.

To make things fair for everyone in the Arab world, we need to do a few important things. First off, let’s promise to give both men and women the same chances at work, not just in how much money they make but also in getting jobs and balancing work with the rest of life. We also need to change how people think. The Changing Attitudes Advocate is there to show everyone that women are great at lots of different jobs, breaking old ideas. And let’s make workplaces more interesting by welcoming everyone, no matter how they’re different, with the Inclusion Supporter. Lastly, ensure women have an equal say and leadership chances in politics, business, and public life, in line with Sustainable Development Goal #5. All these efforts, with the Fair Rule Adjuster, aim to create a fair, inclusive, and equal work environment for everyone.

Do you know Angela Merkel? She is a Chancellor of Germany from 2005 to 2021, who played a crucial role in navigating Germany through economic challenges, fostering international cooperation, and providing steadfast guidance during critical times like the Eurozone and refugee crises. Merkel’s influence extends beyond Germany, making her one of the most influential political figures of her time.


So, the big question isn’t just about going to school; it’s about changing old ideas that hold women back. Imagine a world where Fatima, and others like her, can be engineers, leaders, or whatever they dream of, without anyone saying they should only stick to traditional roles. That’s the kind of world we’re aiming for – where everyone, no matter their gender, gets a fair shot at making their dreams come true.

Understanding the Dynamics: Birth Rates and Youth Fertility Over Time

Understanding the Dynamics: Birth Rates and Youth Fertility Over Time

In our global journey towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), closely examining reproductive trends offers a window into the successes and ongoing challenges of public health initiatives. This post presents an updated analysis of birth rates over the decades and current adolescent fertility rates in key nations.

Our line graph traces the paths of birth rates in countries like Afghanistan, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mauritania, and Yemen from the 1960s onward. While there is a shared downward trajectory, each country’s journey reflects unique socio-economic and healthcare factors influencing these rates.

Complementing the long-term view, the bar graph presents a snapshot of the current state of adolescent fertility rates. This data is critical as it highlights the fertility patterns among young women, which is a key indicator of access to education and reproductive health services. Madagascar and Cameroon exhibit the highest rates, signaling areas where interventions may be most needed.

Together, these visuals offer a comprehensive perspective on reproductive health. The historical data of birth rates inform us of overarching progress, while the adolescent fertility rates give us a focused understanding of where additional efforts are necessary, particularly in empowering young women.

These reproductive trends are intimately linked to SDGs 3, 4, and 5, which emphasize health, education, and gender equality. High adolescent fertility rates can hinder progress in these areas by affecting education completion rates for young women and impacting their health and economic prospects.

To address these complex issues, data-driven strategies are essential. Promoting comprehensive sexual education, enhancing healthcare access, and empowering young women with choices can lead to healthier societies and further progress in reducing birth rates in line with our sustainable development aspirations.

As we analyze these visuals, we’re reminded of the power of data to shape our understanding and our actions. Let’s use these insights to foster a world where every young person is equipped with the knowledge and resources to make informed decisions about their reproductive health.

Stolen Innocence: The Silent Struggle of HIV-Positive Children

Stolen Innocence: The Silent Struggle of HIV-Positive Children

Every two minutes, a child is infected with HIV, and every five minutes, a child loses their life to HIV-related diseases.



Childhood HIV infection remains a global health crisis, with alarming statistics highlighting the urgency of addressing this silent struggle. While progress has been made, particularly in Africa, where the impact is most significant, challenges persist.


Global Overview:

In Africa, the number of children under 14 living with HIV reached its peak in 2007 at 2.1 million, dropping to 1.3 million. However, this reduction, though significant, is not sufficient, especially when considering that the current figure is still ten times higher than the number seen in the rest of the world. The Sub-Saharan region bears the brunt of this crisis, necessitating targeted interventions.



Transmission and Prevention:

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) remains a primary mode of infection during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key preventive measure, significantly reducing transmission rates. Advances in ART have transformed the prognosis for HIV-positive individuals, enabling longer and healthier lives and lower transmissions.


Impact of ART on New Infections:

The introduction of ART treatment for HIV+ pregnant women in Africa in 2000 led to a remarkable 74% reduction in the number of children newly infected with HIV, highlighting the efficacy of ART in preventing mother-to-child transmission.


Challenges in Access to Treatment:

Despite progress, access to ART for pregnant women in Africa has stagnated. In the past five years, only marginal improvement, with approximately 30% of pregnant women still untreated throughout their pregnancies. Identifying barriers to treatment access and the need for targeted interventions.




The strides made in reducing new HIV infections among children through ART are commendable, yet the battle is far from over. Focused efforts are required to address the persistent challenges in ensuring that all HIV-positive pregnant women in Africa have access to life-saving treatments such as:

  • Scale up access to ART for pregnant women by increasing medication availability and addressing logistical challenges.
  • Conduct comprehensive community education campaigns to raise awareness about HIV testing, treatment, and prevention, with a focus on dispelling myths and reducing stigma.
  • Integrate HIV testing and treatment services into routine maternal and child healthcare to ensure consistent and timely care for pregnant women.

The urgency of this mission cannot be overstated, as it directly impacts the innocence and lives of countless children at risk of falling victim to this silent epidemic.

United Arab Emirates Revolution: Women Empowerment vs Fertility

United Arab Emirates Revolution: Women Empowerment vs Fertility

The history of women’s empowerment in the United Arab Emirates’ social progress is framed by declining fertility rates and a concerted attempt to incorporate women into the workforce. In the midst of this fascinating journey, where the fertility rate has gradually dropped from 4.54% in 1990 to a measured 1.46% in 2021, the United Arab Emirates is at a turning point in its history, overcoming both obstacles and successes as it works toward a future characterized by demographic transitions.

In the face of economic fluctuations, exemplified by a decline in GDP from $417 billion in 2019 to $349 billion in 2020 before peaking at $508B in 2023, UAE remains steadfast in its commitment to stability. This commitment is reflected in the deliberate strides towards gender equality within the workplace, transforming a historical landscape of imbalance. Political leadership, once devoid of female representation at 0% in 1997, has evolved to an inspiring 50% in 2022. Similarly, management roles have seen growth from a modest 12.20% in 2017 to a commendable 23.6% in 2021, portraying a nation charting new territories with determination. Moreover, as shown in the heat map, female percentage of 6.31% among the total female employed population, compared to a male percentage of 4.92% among the total male employed population, the overall self-employment rate stands at 5.15%. This signifies that, in the realm of self-employment, women play a more substantial role, surpassing their male counterparts and collectively making a significant impact on the overall self-employed landscape in the UAE.

To address the challenges faced, a multifaceted approach is recommended. Firstly, actively promoting women’s participation in politics has proven to be transformative, exemplified by successful models achieving 50% female representation in national parliaments. Additionally, supporting and fostering women’s career advancement is crucial, evident in the rising trend of increased female presence in senior and middle management roles. Furthermore, it’s vital to prioritize maintaining healthy fertility rates. This can be achieved through the implementation of comprehensive family-friendly policies, encompassing affordable childcare, flexible work arrangements, and robust support for parental leave. Low fertility rates, prevalent in Western countries, pose significant concerns, and safeguarding against this trend is crucial, especially in the context of an Arab country like the UAE.

This complex journey has not been without its achievements. The increased representation of women in parliamentary roles and senior management positions serves as evidence of the UAE’s holistic approach to women’s empowerment. These accomplishments underscore the significance of an unwavering dedication to gender-inclusive policies, showcasing the nation’s commitment to ensuring continual progress. As the UAE confidently embraces change, it invites the world to witness a seamless blend of demographic adaptability and a resolute embrace of women’s empowerment, illustrating a nation shaping its future with foresight and purpose.

Violence Against Women

Violence Against Women

Women all over the world are abused on a daily basis for a variety of reasons, or at least for one.

Men abuse women every day for inconvenient reasons. Following a survey of a few women from various backgrounds, the average number of violated women for the following reasons was determined:

  • A husband is beating his wife if she burns the food 9.20 on average
  • A husband is beating his wife if she argues with him 19 on average
  • A husband is beating his wife if she goes out without telling him 20.5 on average
  • A husband is beating his wife if she neglects the children 23.46 on average
  • A husband is beating his wife if she refuses to have sex with him 13.21 on average
  • A husband is beating his wife for at least one specific reason 33.22 on average

Domestic violence legislation exists in at least 155 countries (World Bank 2020). Nevertheless, challenges in upholding these laws persist, restricting the safety and justice of women and girls. Despite the fact that violence is adequately prevented, it happens and goes unnoticed.

As a result of violence, women’s overall well-being suffers, and they are unable to fully participate in society. It has an impact on their families, their communities, and the entire country. So, how can we assist?