Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

CO2 Emission: Saudi Arabia

CO2 Emission: Saudi Arabia

Over the past three decades, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been a central focus of global environmental discussions. The issue of increasing CO2 emissions, largely attributed to human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and industrial processes, has gained heightened attention due to its significant implications for climate change.

The last 30 years have witnessed a steady rise in global CO2 emissions, driven by rapid industrialization, urbanization, and an escalating demand for energy. As nations grapple with the challenges of mitigating climate change, understanding the patterns and drivers of CO2 emissions over this period becomes crucial for formulating effective strategies to address and curb the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on our planet’s climate system.

The bar chart shows that Saudi Arabia is the most CO2 emitting country among the gulf countries. This is due to being an oil producing country, thus the rely on fossil fuel is massive.

As shown in the bar chart, the main energy source in Saudi Arabia is oil and natural gas with zero reliance on renewable sources.

The sector that is using the most energy is the electricity and heat with around 50% of total fuel consumption.

Reducing CO2 emissions in the electricity and heat sector involves implementing a combination of energy-efficient practices, transitioning to cleaner energy sources, and adopting sustainable technologies. Here are several strategies to achieve this:

1.Transition to Renewable Energy: Invest in and promote the use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal for electricity generation and heating.

2.Energy Efficiency Measures: Implement energy efficiency programs and technologies in power plants and heating systems to optimize energy use and reduce waste.

3.Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems: Implement CHP systems, also known as cogeneration, which simultaneously produce electricity and useful heat from the same energy source, improving overall efficiency.

4.Upgrade and Retrofit Power Plants: Upgrade existing power plants to more efficient and cleaner technologies. Consider retrofitting with advanced technologies like carbon capture and storage (CCS) to capture and store CO2 emissions.

5.Smart Grids and Demand Response: Implement smart grids to optimize electricity distribution and incorporate demand response systems to manage energy consumption during peak times.

Power Paradigm: Charting Africa’s Journey to Sustainable Electrification

Power Paradigm: Charting Africa’s Journey to Sustainable Electrification


The transformative threshold of Africa. Getting Africa on-line is not all about pulling together the disparate elements, but that this approach can be truly inspirational for the innovative technologies which shun conventional ‘hard-wired’ powers and embrace sustainable energy delivery. Despite all that, flickering of the previous shadows in some dimmed-down villages is the sign of change. Nevertheless, the narrative goes beyond the question of access and moves even further into green energy as light for illuminating our environment which is being over polluted at an unheard pace. This transformation encapsulates a dual ambition: clean and green lighting to homes, schools and factories, big and small, in this continent’s crowded cities and small villages under clear day and night skies. During the course of our discourse on details and stories surrounding Africa’s energy map, we will analyze more than just statistical aspects of electric power availability between towns and villages and the recent movement towards renewables – from darkness to sustainable light, which portrays an illuminating future.

We can also check the disparity between urban and rural areas in Africa.

Our initiative seeks to illuminate the African continent by expanding access to electricity, with the firm commitment to SDG 13.2—integrating climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning. We aim to electrify the future of Africa through the adoption of renewable energy solutions, ensuring that every watt powering development is also protecting our planet. By fostering the use of clean, renewable energy sources, we are not only turning on the lights but also paving the way for a sustainable and resilient energy ecosystem across African communities.

Increasing electric power consumption (kWh per capita) in Africa does not inherently lead to a rise in CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) when we strategically incorporate renewable energy sources. By integrating solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal power into the energy mix, Africa can satisfy its growing energy needs while mitigating carbon footprint. This sustainable approach aligns with the global ambition to combat climate change, embodying the spirit of SDG 13.2. It demonstrates that economic growth and environmental stewardship can coexist, powering development that honors our collective commitment to a greener future.

We can see from this graph that in the European Union, increasing electric power consumption per capita did not lead to an increase in CO2 emissions per capita. This is due to the fact that they have increased their reliance on renewables, shown in the following graph.

In conclusion, the imperative for Africa is not just to electrify but to do so sustainably. Green energy solutions offer a pathway to empower the continent with the electricity it needs, without compromising the health of our planet. The adoption of renewable energy technologies in Africa represents a convergence of developmental aspirations with ecological responsibility. By harnessing the abundant renewable resources available, from solar to wind to hydro, Africa can leapfrog traditional, carbon-intensive energy models, setting a global example of sustainable growth. This approach not only addresses immediate energy needs but also aligns with long-term climate goals, fulfilling our collective responsibility to future generations.

China’s Greenhouse Gas Surge: A Climate Challenge

China’s Greenhouse Gas Surge: A Climate Challenge

Addressing the global challenge of greenhouse gas emissions is imperative, with gases like CO2, CH4, and N2O significantly impacting our environment. These gas trap heat, contributing to global warming and climate change, with consequences extending to poor air quality, health issues, and disruptions in temperature and precipitation patterns.

Why address the issue in China specifically?

The focus on China is crucial as it plays a pivotal role in this challenge, contributing 27% of global CO2 emissions and one-third of the world’s greenhouse gases. These compelling statistics, sourced from a recent World Bank report, emphasize the urgency of recognizing and addressing China’s role. Crafting effective global strategies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions requires a nuanced understanding of China’s significant impact on this critical issue.



The below line chart illustrates China’s greenhouse gas emissions in kilotons of CO2 equivalent from 2005 to 2020. The graph depicts a consistent upward trend, starting at nearly 7.3 million kt in 2005 and reaching 13 million kt in 2020


The following map offers a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas emissions between China and other nations in 2020. The stark contrast is evident, with China recording almost 13 million kt, while Russia stands at 2.3 million kt, Brazil at 1.6 million kt, the USA at 5.5 million kt, and Canada at 6.7 million kt. These figures underscore the alarming magnitude of the issue emanating from China.

Contributing Factors to China’s Environmental Impact:

1) China as Global Manufacturer: As the world’s largest manufacturer, China’s robust industry and escalating energy demand significantly contribute to emissions. Fossil fuel combustion for energy production and manufacturing processes plays a central role in the nation’s substantial carbon footprint.

2) Agricultural Impact: Methane emissions from livestock and rice paddies contribute significantly to the intricate landscape of greenhouse gas sources.

3) Urbanization and Infrastructure Development: The construction and operation of buildings, roads, and transportation systems play a role in the environmental challenge.

4) Consumption Patterns: China’s growing middle class and consumer culture contribute to increased demand for goods, impacting production-related emissions.
The lifestyle choices and consumption patterns of the population contribute to the overall carbon footprint.

Comprehensive Solutions for a Sustainable Future:

1) Renewable Energy Transition: Transitioning to renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, is crucial for reducing reliance on fossil fuels and mitigating emissions.

2) Energy Efficiency Measures: Implementing energy-efficient technologies across industries minimizes emissions in transportation, manufacturing, and construction.

3) Circular Economy Practices: Encouraging a circular economy reduces waste and promotes the reuse and recycling of materials, fostering sustainability.

4) Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Investing in CCS technologies captures and stores carbon emissions from industries, playing a key role in emission reduction.

5) Global Collaboration: Collaborating globally on research and technology sharing strengthens efforts to combat climate change effectively.

Final Thoughts:

The urgency to address this challenge is not just a national responsibility but a global imperative. By adopting sustainable practices, embracing clean technologies, and fostering international collaboration, we can collectively steer the trajectory towards a more environmentally resilient future.

Sustainable Horizons: Pioneering Change for a Greener Tomorrow

Sustainable Horizons: Pioneering Change for a Greener Tomorrow

Can you imagine our amazing Lebanese moderate climate that we have all loved turning into an exceptionally scorching or freezing weather condition?


Climate change has become a global concern, with impacts felt across all nations and regions. It messes up countries’ economies and comes with big costs now and in the future, affecting people, communities, and nations deeply.


This change is directly related to human actions and interventions. Only 5 countries represent the global major emitters and are mainly contributing to this effect through Greenhouse Gas Emissions.


It’s important to highlight that what’s even more concerning is the lack of substantial strategies and significant efforts by these nations to diminish their contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and, in turn, global warming. China, in particular, demonstrates a noticeable upward trajectory in GHG emissions.


Can we control and minimize these green house gas emissions ? Can we prevent our climate change and have a more sustainable environment ? 


CO2 , CH4 and N2O are major gases contributing to Global Warming as per below chart:

Hence, investigating the sources of these gases and identifying the most influential source contributor will unveil the underlying issue, offering a solid foundation from which to initiate efforts aimed at reducing their presence and subsequent impact

Data reveals that bad agricultural practices are major source of NO2 emissions in major emitters whereas Energy generation is the major source of Methane in this group except for India and Japan.

A central concept is that fuel usage stands as the primary driver of CO2 emissions. To delve deeper, we will analyze the predominant form of fuel consumption in each country by examining the average percentage distribution across various sources. Solid Fuel is major source in China and India, Liquid Fuel is major source in Japan and USA whereas Gaseous Fuel is major source in Russia.

Where is the fuel mainly used?

Powering the World : Exposing the insatiable hunger for energy in the captivating domains of electricity and heat production.

Potential Solution


Hence, the solution lies squarely in human actions and interventions. Opting for organic farming, free from chemical inputs, can significantly reduce harmful gas emissions. Additionally, a shift to renewable energy sources such as solar and wind will substantially decrease greenhouse gas emissions, contributing further to a sustainable future and climate protection. As an example, Brazil that generates around 46 % of its energy from renewable sources generates GHG emissions that constitute just 5 % of China’s and 7 % of USA emissions.

It is not fair that only around 25 % of the globe area is the major source of GHG emissions, climate change and environmental degradation. We must transition towards more sustainable actions and behaviors to ensure a more resilient future for our planet.



The urgent need for a global sustainability committee is evident, and the starting point is the creation of the “Major Emitters” group. This committee aims to be a central force guiding worldwide sustainable initiatives, encouraging collaboration among nations to address environmental challenges and cultivate a resilient global ecosystem. The Major Emitters entity is positioned to lead this effort, uniting influential contributors and paving the way for collective action in the pursuit of a sustainable future.




Are we Sufficiently using Clean Energy? Global Warming is still on the Rise!

Are we Sufficiently using Clean Energy? Global Warming is still on the Rise!

Year after Year, temperatures rise across the world with an increase in the overall emissions of CO2 and other gases correlated with global warming. Sea levels are at risk of rising, climate change is on the rise, increased risks of droughts and floods and threats to biodiversity. All this as a consequence of global warming and finally putting people’s lives at risk and the survival of the world. Although we have a solution available, we are not efficiently relying on it neither optimizing its use. SDG 7 requires a world responsibility towards providing accessible and clean energy sources, one of our key responsibilities is to ensure that we reach this goal adequately by the year 2030.

“Amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is 50% more than the 1900s.” 

“Temperatures increasing yearly, and summers getting hotter.” 

These are words repeated by people over and over, but are we reacting?

The following shows the rise in temperatures.

Global Warming:

The root problem!

Global warming was identified as a global issue during the 1980s, during the year 1988 world hottest summers were recorded. Since then, hotter summers have been recorded, increasing temperatures are still being recorded along continuous increase in CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy was first explored in 1927 through wind turbines, although such resources are available, they are still not used adequately to encounter the rising temperatures issue. Renewable energy resources are available, but their usage is not improving.

Renewable Energy:

Are we sufficiently using them?
  • World resources institute states that renewable energy resources emit 50g or less of CO2 emissions per KWh over their lifetime, compared to about 1000g CO2/KWh for coal and 475g CO2/KWh for natural gas.

Renewable and clean energy resources such as solar power, wind power, hydro power or nuclear power are highly available and further resources could be developed. Current resources are not efficiently used along with no clear plans or transition to more clean energy resources. On the other hand, not all countries or people have appropriate access to clean energy resource neither the resources or accommodations required to develop them.

The infrastructure and development of renewable energy is highly costly, but costs for using such energy on the long-term are cheaper, current fossil fuel prices are set to be cheaper as the pollution consequences and carbon-fee are not interpreted into the pricing strategy of gases and fossil fuels. Governments and Organizations are avoiding the transition due to its high costs but at the cost of polluting and putting high risks on our environment our health and survival of earth.


A clear rise in CO2 emissions accompanied by a decrease of renewable energy consumption is shown and identified by world development indicators.

Actions Required:

  • Optimizing usage of currently available clean energy resources and services.
  • Increase the availability of clean energy sources and reliance on them across different sectors and industries.
  • Raise Awareness on the problem “that we have the resources and capabilities needed to reduce global warming” but we are not efficiently using them.
  • Raise Awareness about the risks and effects of global warming along with the quick rate it is happening at.

Governments and World organizations planning strategies to increase the use of renewable enerygy and conducting awareness campaigns to influence the public and future image.

If we don’t protect our environment and nature, we can’t protect ourselves. Floods, drought, higher rates of contamination, increased health risks and the slow death of our planet are the cost of using cheaper resources.