Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

The Global Water Crisis

The Global Water Crisis

The Global Water Crisis

The global water crisis is a pressing issue characterized by increasing water scarcity and deteriorating water quality, impacting billions worldwide. Factors such as population growth, climate change, pollution, and inefficient water management contribute to this crisis. Many regions face challenges in accessing clean and safe water, leading to health hazards, agricultural setbacks, and socio-economic repercussions. Urgent action is required to address this crisis through sustainable water use, conservation, and improved infrastructure to ensure equitable access to this vital resource for present and future generations.

Top 5 Countries with Clean Water:

  • Uruguay
  • United States of America
  • United Kingdom
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Switzerland

These countries are known for their efficient water management, strict environmental regulations, and abundant natural water sources.

Least 5 Countries with Clean Water:

  • Congo
  • Central African Republic
  • South Sudan
  • Niger
  • Burkina Faso

These countries often struggle with water scarcity, poor infrastructure, and limited access to clean drinking water, leading to severe health and socio-economic issues.



Clean Water Availability Rural/Urban:

Clean water availability can vary significantly between rural and urban areas. Generally, urban areas tend to have better access to clean water due to better infrastructure and public services. In contrast, rural areas face challenges in obtaining clean water due to limited resources and a lack of proper water treatment facilities.

Clean Water Availability 2015/2022:

Clean water availability has likely improved in some regions between 2015 and 2022, mainly due to increased efforts from governments, NGOs, and international organizations. However, the overall result shows a Decline of 1.8% in clean water availability.

Water Availability by Region:

Water availability can be classified into four main categories:

  1. Clean Water: Regions where clean and safe water is readily available for consumption and daily use.
  2. Limited Water: Regions facing water scarcity, where access to clean water is limited, and communities may struggle to meet their water needs.
  3. Unimproved Water: Regions where water sources may be available, but the water quality is poor and contaminated, posing health risks to the population.
  4. Surface Water: Refers to water sources like rivers, lakes, and reservoirs that are openly exposed to the environment.

The distribution of these categories varies widely across different regions and countries, with some areas experiencing critical water shortages and poor water quality specially in African Region.




Clean water plays a significant role in hygiene sustainability as access to safe and clean water is essential for maintaining good hygiene practices. Without clean water, it becomes challenging to ensure proper sanitation, handwashing, and overall hygiene, which can lead to the spread of waterborne diseases and other health issues

Impact of Clean Water on Hygiene Sustainability:

  1. Handwashing: Clean water is essential for practicing proper handwashing, which is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infections and diseases.
  2. Sanitation: Access to clean water is critical for maintaining sanitation facilities like toilets and latrines. Adequate sanitation is essential to prevent the contamination of water sources and the spread of diseases.
  3. Food Preparation: Clean water is required for washing and preparing food to ensure it is safe for consumption.
  4. Personal Hygiene: Clean water is necessary for bathing and maintaining personal hygiene, promoting overall health and well-being.

Top Countries by Hygiene Sustainability: Countries with well-developed infrastructure and access to clean water and sanitation facilities generally tend to have better hygiene sustainability. The top countries by hygiene sustainability may vary depending on the specific criteria and data sources used for evaluation.

Least Countries by Hygiene Sustainability: Countries facing challenges in providing access to clean water and sanitation facilities often have lower hygiene sustainability. These countries may struggle with poor sanitation practices, leading to higher rates of waterborne diseases and health issues.

Hygiene Sustainability % Rural/Urban: The availability of clean water and sanitation facilities can differ significantly between rural and urban areas. Urban areas generally have better access to improved sanitation facilities and clean water sources compared to rural regions. Consequently, hygiene sustainability is often higher in urban areas.

Hygiene Sustainability by Region: The level of hygiene sustainability can vary widely across different regions, depending on factors such as infrastructure development, access to resources, and government initiatives. Regions facing challenges like water scarcity, lack of proper sanitation facilities, and limited access to clean water may experience lower hygiene sustainability.

Basic, Limited & No Facility: Hygiene sustainability can be classified into categories based on the availability and quality of sanitation facilities:

  1. Basic Facility: Access to improved sanitation facilities, such as flush toilets or ventilated pit latrines, that are hygienically separated from human contact.
  2. Limited Facility: Access to unimproved sanitation facilities, which do not meet basic hygienic standards, such as pit latrines without proper ventilation or sanitation facilities shared by multiple households.
  3. No Facility: Lack of access to any sanitation facility, resulting in open defecation or the absence of proper waste disposal systems.

Promoting hygiene sustainability and ensuring access to clean water and sanitation facilities are crucial steps in improving public health, reducing waterborne diseases, and achieving sustainable development goals worldwide. Efforts from governments, international organizations, and local communities are essential to address these challenges effectively.


UN-Water. (2022). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2021 – Valuing Water. Retrieved from:

World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). (2021). Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2020: five years into the SDGs. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene. Retrieved from:

2008 Recession

2008 Recession

The 2008 financial crisis, also known as the “Global Financial Crisis” or the “Great Recession,” was one of the most severe economic downturns since the 1930s Great Depression. Originating in the United States, it rapidly became a global phenomenon that impacted economies worldwide. A confluence of factors, including the bursting of the housing bubble, a surge of subprime mortgage defaults, and a crisis in the global financial system, precipitated the crisis.

Nauru has the highest average GDP per capita among the countries enumerated (22.22), followed by Equatorial Guinea (17.80), Qatar (17.66), Turkmenistan (14.7), and Timor-Leste (11.39). These nations are distinguished by their diverse economic structures and vast natural resource wealth.
The data illustrates the effects of the 2008 financial crisis on inflation and per capita GDP over time. In addition, it emphasizes the varied economic circumstances of the countries mentioned, with differing levels of average GDP per capita.

Indicators Visualization
In 2009, the value of net commerce increased to $2,35 Billion, indicating an increase in exports relative to imports. This may have been the result of a shift in external demand or the depreciation of domestic currencies, which has made exports more competitive.
Throughout the crisis years, lending interest rates remained relatively stable, lingering around 0.13 percent. In the midst of the financial turmoil, central banks likely maintained accommodating monetary policies in an effort to maintain liquidity and stimulate borrowing and investment. This stability in lending rates could have been instrumental in bolstering economic activity and consumer access to credit.
During the crisis, however, inflation rates experienced significant shifts. Inflation soared to 10.16 percent in 2008, reflecting inflationary pressures caused by supply chain disruptions and increased uncertainty arising from the economic crisis. However, inflation rates began to moderate in the years that followed, suggesting that central banks and policymakers may have taken steps to control price pressures and stabilize consumer prices. Moreover, the indicator of income per capita experienced significant fluctuations, reflecting the economic challenges countries confronted during this time. In 2009, the per capita income declined by a significant -0.69%. This decline could be attributed to the crisis’s negative effects, such as employment losses, decreased economic activity, and financial market turmoil.
These indicators illustrate the volatility and complexity of the 2008 financial crisis. The impact of the crisis on net trade, lending interest rates, and inflation highlights the dynamic interplay of economic factors and the difficulties governments and central banks face in managing macroeconomic stability during this difficult period.

Compared to the average GDP growth rate (3.82%), the adequacy of unemployment benefits and ALMPs (% of total welfare of beneficiary households) was relatively low at 17.56%. This indicates that the assistance provided to unemployed individuals through unemployment benefits and active labor market programs may not have had a significant impact on the overall economic growth during that year.

The Recovery Process
After the 2008 financial crisis, both the GDP growth rate and per capita income showed evidence of economic recovery and improvement in 2010. The GDP growth rate rebounded significantly, reaching 4.54 percent, indicating a robust recovery in economic activity compared to the modest growth rate of 0.17 percent encountered at the height of the recession in 2009. This rebound in GDP growth indicates that the crisis-era policy measures, stimulus packages, and economic reforms had a positive effect on restoring economic stability and stimulating growth.
In 2010, the per capita income also increased at a significant rate, 3.34 percent. This growth indicates an increase in individual incomes and suggests that efforts to promote employment, strengthen social safety nets, and stimulate economic recovery had a positive impact on household incomes. Positive trends in both the GDP growth rate and per capita income in 2010 reflect the resilience of economies and the progress made in overcoming the obstacles posed by the 2008 financial crisis. Despite the fact that the recovery process has been gradual, these indicators point to a positive trajectory of economic development and a path to restoring prosperity in the post-crisis era.

Health Care Expenditure Problem in U.S.A

Health Care Expenditure Problem in U.S.A



Health Expenditure in the U.S per person has been continuously rising in recent years, posing serious problems for both patients and the healthcare system as a whole.

US healthcare spending is the highest globally, yet health outcomes are poor. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, about $10k per capita are spent on healthcare annually, double the average of other developed nations. Still, life expectancy falls behind, and medical expenses are a frequent cause of personal bankruptcy.


The following are the main causes of rising healthcare costs:

  • Increasing healthcare costs
  • Aging population
  • Prevalence of chronic diseases
  • Complexity of the healthcare system
  • Higher utilization of healthcare services

The Consequences of Increasing Healthcare Costs:

  • Expenses borne by people
  • Having little access to good healthcare
  • Efficiency issues and inconsistent care
  • Healthcare service disparities



HealthVantage, Health Management Platform:

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  • Provide telemedicine services, which allows virtual consultations with healthcare professionals, cutting down on costly in-person visits and providing convenient accessibility while lowering healthcare expenses.

Benefits of HealthVantage:

Individual Benefits:

  • Better control over individual health information
  • Lower healthcare expenses
  • Enhanced overall quality of life and wellness

System-wide Benefits:

  • Better healthcare efficiency
  • Reduction in unnecessary healthcare utilization

We understand that you, as investors, seek validation and tangible results. That’s why we are committed to conducting extensive research and case studies in collaboration with healthcare providers, insurance companies, and academic institutions. These studies will showcase the cost savings, improved health outcomes, and heightened patient satisfaction that HealthVantage brings to the table.

For HealthVantage to succeed and have widespread adoption, we have important suggestions:

First, collaboration with stakeholders is vital. We will actively engage with healthcare providers, insurance companies, employers, and policymakers to integrate our platform into existing healthcare systems and maximize its impact.

HealthVantage saves a lot of money. We’ll inform users about the financial benefits and offer affordable subscription plans to attract users and drive adoption.

User education and engagement will be a top priority. We will achieve this through awareness campaigns, user-friendly tutorials, and community-building efforts to ensure the long-term success of HealthVantage users.

In conclusion, HealthVantage has the potential to revolutionize healthcare in the United States. By reducing health expenditure per capita and improving individual well-being, we can create a healthier and more affordable healthcare system. Investing in HealthVantage is investing in a healthier, more prosperous future for both individuals and society. I invite you to join us on this transformative journey, as we strive to make a lasting impact on the lives of millions while generating significant returns on investment.


Girls Not Brides-The Blossoming Freedom

In a rural village, a young girl full of dreams, was forced into an early marriage due to her family’s belief that it would secure a better future. Her education was cut short, limiting her potential to contribute to society. As the village’s literacy rate remained low, so did their GDP per capita reflecting the country economic situation. The cycle of poverty seemed unbreakable. Child marriage perpetuated the cycle, as girls were denied the opportunity to receive an education and develop valuable skills.

We planned to embed the world-wide best practice to fight this behavior and limit its exposure. The starting step is to recognize the importance of education and empowerment. Our role is to promote challenging the practice of child marriage, advocating for girls’ rights and investing in their education. Moreover, our duty is to provide life skills training and empowerment programs for girls at the age of 15 years. Other strategies should not be limited to the awareness and advocacy but to be extended to community engagement.

We have realized that after implementing the strategies, the literacy rate had increased, unlocking the potential of both girls and boys. As education flourished, so did the village’s GDP per capita. The correlation between breaking the chains of child marriage, education, and economic prosperity became evident.

The practice will become a model for progress, inspiring neighboring communities to follow suit. Child marriage gradually diminished, and more children, especially girls, were given the chance to pursue education and contribute to their society.

Through their determination and understanding, the village shattered the chains of child marriage, enabling a brighter future for generations to come. The investment in education proved to be the key to breaking the cycle of poverty. The correlation between ending child marriage, increasing literacy rates, and boosting GDP per capita was a powerful reminder of the transformative power of education and gender equality.

Refer to Graph I:

The percentage trend of women married or in union before age 15 has been gradually declining in many regions, although the pace of progress varies. The exact trends may vary from country to country and even within regions.

the global prevalence of child marriage has declined in recent years. The proportion of women aged 20-24 who were married or in union before age 15 dropped from 12% in 1995 to 6% in 2020. This indicates progress in efforts to reduce child marriage globally.

Some countries have shown significant declines in child marriage rates. For example, in South Asia, where child marriage rates have historically been high, countries like Bangladesh and Nepal have seen substantial reductions in child marriage prevalence over the past decade. In Sub-Saharan Africa, progress has also been observed in countries like Ethiopia, Rwanda, and Malawi.

However, it’s important to note that despite the overall decline, child marriage remains a significant issue in many regions, and there are still areas where progress has been slow or stagnant. Continued efforts and targeted interventions are necessary to further accelerate the decline in child marriage rates and achieve the goal of eliminating child marriage by 2030, as outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals.

Refer to Graph IV:

It’s important to note that child marriage can occur in different regions and countries other than subsharan Africa and South Asia. What’s crucial here is to direct the efforts to combat child marriage that should be tailored to address the specific cultural, social, and economic factors that contribute to the practice in each region.

It’s important to note that child marriage rates can change over time, and more recent data should be consulted for the most accurate information. Here are some countries that have historically had high child marriage rates:

1.Niger: Niger has one of the highest child marriage rates globally. According to UNICEF, about 76% of women aged 20-24 were married before the age of 18, and approximately 28% were married before the age of 15.

2.Chad: In Chad, child marriage rates are also significant. Around 68% of women aged 20-24 were married before the age of 18, and approximately 17% were married before the age of 15.

3.Bangladesh: Bangladesh has one of the highest child marriage rates in South Asia. Approximately 59% of women aged 20-24 were married before the age of 18, and around 22% were married before the age of 15.

4.Central African Republic: In the Central African Republic, child marriage rates are high, with about 52% of women aged 20-24 married before the age of 18, and around 17% married before the age of 15.

5.Mali: Mali also has a significant child marriage prevalence. Approximately 52% of women aged 20-24 were married before the age of 18, and around 16% were married before the age of 15.

6.South Sudan: In South Sudan, child marriage rates are high, with approximately 52% of women aged 20-24 married before the age of 18, and around 14% married before the age of 15.

It’s important to note that child marriage is not limited to these countries, and it occurs in various regions worldwide. Efforts are being made globally to address this issue and reduce child marriage rates through legislative measures, education programs, and community engagement.

Refer to Graph II & III:

It’s important to understand that the correlations can vary across different countries and regions. Cultural and social factors, as well as specific policy interventions, can also influence the relationship between child marriage and these indicators. Additionally, other factors, such as social norms, legal frameworks, and access to healthcare, also play significant roles in determining child marriage rates.

Efforts to address child marriage often focus on promoting education, economic opportunities, and gender equality. By improving literacy rates and fostering economic growth, societies can contribute to reducing child marriage rates and ensuring the well-being and empowerment of young girls.

The correlation between child marriage and GDP per capita as well as literacy rate can provide insights into the relationship between these factors. It’s important to note that correlation does not imply causation, but examining the association can shed light on potential patterns. Here is a general overview:

1.GDP per capita: There is evidence to suggest that there is an inverse correlation between child marriage and GDP per capita. Higher GDP per capita generally corresponds to lower child marriage rates. As countries experience economic development and improved living conditions, families may have greater resources and opportunities, leading to a decrease in child marriage rates. Economic empowerment can provide families with more choices, reduce poverty-driven motivations for child marriage, and increase access to education.

2.Literacy rate: There is a strong correlation between child marriage and literacy rate. Higher literacy rates are generally associated with lower child marriage rates. Education plays a crucial role in empowering individuals, particularly girls, by increasing their awareness of their rights and options. When girls have access to education and are encouraged to complete their schooling, they are more likely to delay marriage and pursue their personal and professional aspirations.

Efforts & Actions – till 2030

Efforts to eliminate child marriage have been ongoing at various levels, including international organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and grassroots initiatives. While complete eradication of child marriage is a complex and long-term goal, significant progress has been made, and various strategies are being implemented to address the issue. Here are some key efforts:

1.International Conventions and Declarations: International conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, highlight the importance of addressing child marriage and protecting the rights of children and women.

2.National Legislation: Many countries have enacted laws to raise the minimum age of marriage, strengthen child protection laws, and provide legal frameworks for combating child marriage. However, enforcement of these laws remains a challenge in some regions.

3.Awareness and Advocacy: Organizations and activists are working to raise awareness about the negative impact of child marriage on individuals and communities. They engage in advocacy efforts to mobilize support, change social norms, and promote gender equality and girls’ education.

4.Girls’ Education and Empowerment: Education is a crucial factor in preventing child marriage. Efforts are being made to improve access to quality education for girls, enhance school retention rates, and provide life skills training and empowerment programs.

5.Community Engagement: Engaging with communities, religious leaders, and local influencers is vital to address the root causes of child marriage. By promoting dialogue and community-led initiatives, it becomes possible to challenge traditional norms and beliefs that perpetuate child marriage.

6.Economic Empowerment: Programs that promote economic opportunities for girls and their families can contribute to reducing the economic drivers of child marriage. This includes vocational training, entrepreneurship support, and income-generating activities.

As for when child marriage is expected to be eliminated, it is challenging to provide a specific timeline. However, there is a global commitment to ending child marriage under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically Target 5.3, which aims to eliminate child, early, and forced marriage by 2030. Achieving this goal requires sustained efforts, collaboration, and continued commitment from all stakeholders involved.

The Great Recession in 2007 – 2009

The Great Recession in 2007 – 2009

Throughout history, the global economy has experienced several periods of recession. Their occurrence can be influenced by a multitude of factors including economic cycles, financial crises, etc
The occurrence of recessions is not uniform across all countries or regions.
In the past seven decades, the world economy has experienced four global recessions: in 1975, 1982, 1991, and 2009.
The World Bank analysis found that real GDP per capita and other global economic metrics fell, disrupting economies and financial systems worldwide.

The Great Recession r efers to a significant and widespread economic downturn experienced by various national economies worldwide, spanning from the latter part of 2007 to 2009 The recession exhibited variations in scale and timing across different countries, as evidenced by the low percentage of Real GDP growth during this period, as depicted in the map below:

The transition of U.S. housing market from boom to bust, resulting in a significant devaluation of mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and derivative financial instruments.
The inability of banks to extend financial resources to businesses, coupled with the inclination of homeowners to prioritize debt reduction over borrowing and consumption, contributed to the onset of the Great Recession.
(GDP) experienced a significant decline in 2009, reaching its lowest point in the majority of the top 20 countries globally.

Could a Financial Crisis Happen Again?
Despite measures to avert a similar crisis, the financial sector is nevertheless vulnerable:
– high levels of debt in the global economy.
– Use of complex financial instruments, such as derivatives, which can be difficult to understand and value.
– The interconnectedness of the global financial system Lack of effective regulation
– Despite the central banks control and the new regulation, there are still gaps particularly in the banking sector regulations.
It is essential to remain vigilant and continue to strengthen the resilience of the financial system to reduce the risk of another crisis.

References :

Empowering Africa’s Future Through Child Education”

Empowering Africa’s Future Through Child Education”

I tackled a very sensitive subject to my heart. As an aunt to 2 nieces and nephews, and someone who has worked as well as volunteered with children, their age group will always be very close to my heart.

Thus, the indicator I will be focusing on today is children out of school percentage worldwide.

In a time where all children should have excess to education, Africa is the continent with the highest children out of school percentage.It can be shown clearly in the data visualization as it is the continent with highest red coloration.

When we think about correlated factors, we see that the % of poverty by headcount is highest in Africa.

Also, the % of Child employment (ages 7-14) seem to be the highest in the same continent.

While regarding current expenditure on education, Africa falls the 2nd lowest in this category.

Governments should give priority to ensuring that education is freely available and easily accessible to every child, while managing child employment laws and expenditure on education.

Governments should work together with NGOs, international organizations, and sponsors to strengthen funds for education. This includes offering financial aid for school fees and teacher support. Policy changes should also be altered to prioritize education expenditure to improve infrastructure, resources, and mainly, student funding.
Additionally, governments should address child and adolescent labor by enforcing anti-child labor laws, implementing social protection measures for at-risk families, and ensuring secure school environments. Not only should they enforce laws, but they should focus on ensuring compliance with anti-child labor laws. This includes having multiple labor inspectors on child labor issues, conducting regular inspections in sectors identified as high-risk for child labor, and taking appropriate enforcement actions against those found in violation of the laws.