Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

Population Clusters and Housing Deficit in Jordan

Population Clusters and Housing Deficit in Jordan

“Urbanization” is a problem that many countries suffer from. It led to drastic demographic changes that led to negative effects in terms of political , social , and economical aspects. Many governments struggle to solve the issue of high density populated area and find ways to shift this density to the skirts of cities in order to decrease stress on resources within the city bounds.

Jordan , is one of these countries who struggled with multiple refugees waves due to political instability in neighboring countries , started in 1948, then 1967 , 1990, 2003, and 2011 . in all of these waves the government was not ready to absorb the impact of sudden increase in population , especially in major cities like Amman, Irbid and Al Zarqa, which led to an increasing housing deficit in the past decades.

This sudden increase in population and the housing deficit is one of key factors in harming the social context of any community, we can realize that from crime rate increase in the same period of time.

Government Role

Jordanian government contributed in providing households since 1965 by initiating multiple institutions such as General Corporation for Housing and Urban Development (HUDC), Housing Bank and many saving funds . in 1996 the government issues the Housing Sector Restructuring Project which succeeded in providing housing units across the country and according to population growth in different cities. Unfortunately these efforts was stopped in 2010 and substituted to supporting demand instead of supporting supply, the HUDC role was shrink to providing empty land slots with minimum infrastructure, which created many vacant underdeveloped projects around the Jordanian cities.

Government contribution in supplying housing units dropped to 1%, which led to sudden increase in deficit by more than 45,000 units , ( 6 million square meters of apartments , of an average 130 sqm per apartment ) . Most of government contribution was directed to low-income sector, which the private sector did not focused on. In 2018 private sector contributed in 31% only of the housing deficit in declination than 2016 were it contributed in 54% of the deficit.

Housing Distribution

Housing distribution is a major indicator on how the government is responding to housing deficit and population increase, according to data from Department of Statistics ( DOS ) 61% of housing construction is concentrated in only three Major cities ( Amman, Irbid, Al Zarqa) , 45% are in Amman alone ( 1,072,559 house ) . This emphasize the gap between the capital and other cities , in a look on the housing distribution map we can see the unequal distribution of housing between different Governates.

New Urban Clusters

As a solution to unequal distribution of housing across a country , many governments focused on creating Urban clusters outside major cities , either to absorb population density or to decrease stress on infrastructure and facilities , a good example on that is the Malaysian case study. The government of Malaysia developed a 20 year plan which was updated every five year , The government was involved in providing incentives on both sides ( supply & demand ) It created houses for low income families in partnership with private sector by creating urban clusters with full services ( fire & rescue , libraries, information services, broadcasting, sports and cultural facilities ) as well as family and community centers in order to improve general well-being of the people.(1)


It is important to Jordan to initiate Housing programs on a national level which collect data that helps in forecasts for housing demand , and to fulfil this demand through Private Public Partnerships Projects that target low-income housing especially in governates outside Amman , Irbid & Zarqa.

Healthcare Challenges in Nigeria: A Call for Action

Healthcare Challenges in Nigeria: A Call for Action

Imagine waking up every day gripped by the fear of succumbing to poor healthcare, a result of your country’s negligence.

Chukwudi, a 10-year-old Nigerian battling HIV in a nation with the world’s highest mortality rate (164.24/1000 people). Is his fear justified? And what measures can his country take to alleviate his plight?

Identifying the Root Causes

Let’s delve into the factors contributing to this alarming mortality rate.

Nigeria bears the burden of communicable diseases, leading to an unprecedented death toll.

Is this merely coincidence?

Upon examining the rate of HIV transmission among children aged 0 to 14, it’s disheartening to discover Nigeria topping the list once again (second place after South Africa).

But why?

Having pinpointed the primary cause of this high death ratio, let’s explore why Nigeria’s healthcare system remains deficient. While insurance coverage remains dismally low (6% of population), a common plight across many African countries, Nigeria stands out for ranking third-lowest in hospital bed availability on the continent (12.14 per 1000 people), reflecting a dire lack of medical infrastructure.

Proposing Effective Solutions

Amidst these challenges, what potential solutions could prove effective?

Over the years, Nigeria has made strides in reducing its death rate, reaching 13.1 per 1000 persons in 2021, primarily through targeted actions such as immunization campaigns, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs, malaria control initiatives, tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, and partnerships with international organizations and NGOs. However, this progress falls short of the global target of 7.7 per 1000 persons by 2020.



To bdeveloping the healthcare workforce, enhancing access to medicines and equipment, integrating technology, fostering more public-private partnerships (PPPs), and reforming healthcare financing.

With Nigeria’s abundant resources, it is time to overcome these healthcare challenges and provide its people with the peace and security they deserve to lead healthier lives.uild upon this momentum, it is imperative to intensify efforts and implement additional measures, including investing in healthcare infrastructure,

For a brighter and healthier future Chukwudi !

PS: All data presented span from 2013 to 2021.

Beyond Borders: Bridging Child Mortality Divide between Africa and Advanced Nations

In Africa, low birth expectancy remains a significant burden, particularly for children. Several factors contribute to this bleak reality, including communicable diseases, maternal health issues, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis. The problem is further made worse by socioeconomic variables like early marriage, teenage pregnancies, low levels of schooling, and high rates of child dropouts from school. Africa grapples with multifaceted issues that jeopardize the well-being of its youth. We will look at the complicated causes of child mortality in Africa and compare them to advanced countries to underscore the importance of addressing these challenges and the potential pathways toward improvement.

Many African youngsters still lose their lives to communicable diseases. Malnutrition, inadequate resources, poor sanitation, and inadequate access to healthcare services all contribute to the spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis. Advanced countries, on the other hand, profit from extensive public health initiatives and well-established healthcare systems that efficiently monitor, manage, and control disease epidemics. Child mortality rates are also significantly influenced by maternal and prenatal circumstances, underscoring the need for enhanced maternal healthcare services and nutrition initiatives.

Globally, Africa is heavily impacted by HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis cases. These diseases not only have an adverse effect on children’s health and wellbeing but also impede economic growth. In order to effectively tackle these diseases, more funding must be allocated to the healthcare system, as well as access to affordable medication and thorough preventative and treatment plans.
There are significant differences between the healthcare and socioeconomic systems in Africa and more advanced countries. The latters enjoy the advantages of a strong healthcare system, universal access to medical care, and extensive public health initiatives that efficiently contain and manage disease outbreaks. On the other hand, African countries struggle to provide universal access to necessary medical services and prescription drugs due to a lack of resources and fragmented healthcare systems.

Moreover, Socioeconomic factors have a significant impact on health outcomes, particularly for children in Africa. Early marriage and teen pregnancy increase maternal and child health hazards. Early marriage often leads to early pregnancies, increasing the risk of problems during labor for both young mothers and children. Furthermore, limiting access to education reinforces cycles of poverty and impedes efforts to improve health outcomes.
In advanced nations, extensive sex education programs, access to birth control, and higher literacy rates all lead to better maternal and child health outcomes.

Investment in education and healthcare is critical for increasing child survival rates in Africa. Unfortunately, many countries do not commit sufficient resources to these areas, resulting in low education spending and limited access to effective healthcare services. Increased government investment on education and health, together with international support and collaboration, is critical to resolving these discrepancies.

In addition to the numerous problems that African children face, it is critical to highlight the disparity in educational opportunities for girls. Surprisingly, the majority of African children who drop out of primary school are girls, indicating long-standing gender disparities in educational opportunities. Cultural conventions, early marriages, and socioeconomic constraints frequently cause girls to drop out of school, denying them the opportunity to gain critical knowledge and skills. This gap not only perpetuates poverty cycles, but it also increases the health risks for girls and their future children. Addressing the gender gap in education is critical for ending the cycle of child death and promoting sustainable development in Africa.

Addressing short life expectancy at birth in Africa necessitates a holistic approach that addresses both health and socioeconomic factors. Investing in healthcare infrastructure, expanding educational opportunities, empowering women and girls, and enhancing public health systems are all key measures toward increasing child survival rates. Prioritizing these activities and developing international cooperation can help us achieve improved health outcomes and a brighter future for African children.

Vietnam’s Economic Resurgence: Navigating Challenges to Emerge Stronger in 2022

Vietnam’s Economic Resurgence: Navigating Challenges to Emerge Stronger in 2022

Charting Progress: Vietnam’s GDP, Trade, and Industrial Growth (2010-2022)

The years 2010 to 2022 have seen stability and expansion in Vietnam’s economy. The visual shows the economic dynamics of the nation over a ten-year period, highlighting the GDP growth rate annually, which highlights the country’s resilience in the face of regional and international difficulties. Additionally, it draws attention to the consistent contribution of trade to GDP, which reflects Vietnam’s growing influence on the international scene. The graph also shows the manufacturing and industrial sectors’ expanding and considerable influence on the economy, indicating a move toward modernization and industrialization. Vietnam’s strategic economic policies and strong reactivity to shifting economic conditions are demonstrated by this data narrative.

Established policies like the Doi Moi economic reform, which laid the foundation for Vietnam’s market-oriented strategy, supported the country’s economic resilience in the face of global problems in 2020. Furthermore, during a turbulent time, Vietnam’s commerce was supported by the government’s strategic application of free trade agreements, such as the EU-Vietnam Free commerce Agreement (EVFTA) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). During the epidemic, this strategy and programs like the National Foreign Direct Investment Strategy for 2021–2030 supported growth and cushioned the economy. Following the COVID-19 epidemic, Vietnam’s National Assembly passed Resolution 43 in 2022, which was a comprehensive package meant to revive the country’s economy. To lessen the burden on businesses, specific measures included a 2% reduction in VAT and CIT deductions. A significant budget, almost US$15 billion, was set aside for modernization, infrastructure development, and healthcare advancements. In addition, the government offered favorable loans to support company recovery together with social security subsidies for job creation and training. These focused monetary and fiscal policies were essential in launching Vietnam’s economy’s post-pandemic recovery. The Vietnam Briefing addresses the effects and extent of these policies in detail.

Seizing the Momentum: Vietnam’s Path Forward
In times of global unpredictability, Vietnam’s resilience and economic expansion bear witness not just to its excellent policymaking but also to the unwavering dedication of its people and leadership. One issue still stands as we consider this dynamic economy’s amazing journey: how can the international community use Vietnam’s achievements as a model to strengthen its own economy? The search of creativity and teamwork together holds the key to the solution. Using Vietnam’s experience as a model, let’s consider how we may use these ideas to face our own issues with the same determination and bravery.

Empowering Women: A Key to Addressing Domestic Violence and Educational Challenges

Empowering Women: A Key to Addressing Domestic Violence and Educational Challenges


In recent years, a growing body of research has begun to highlight the crucial role that women’s empowerment plays in addressing some of the most pressing social issues of our time. Among these are the twin challenges of domestic violence and the high dropout rates among female adolescents. This article delves into the latest findings on how enhancing women’s education and career opportunities can lead to healthier, more equitable societies.

The Link Between Education, Career Achievement, and Domestic Violence

A recent analysis of data has shed light on a compelling connection: women’s educational backgrounds significantly influence their attitudes towards domestic violence and their career achievements. In countries where women achieve higher career success, there are noticeable societal benefits. These include lower rates of female adolescents dropping out of school and a reduced tolerance for domestic violence. This finding underscores the transformative power of education and career empowerment in shaping societal norms and health outcomes.

Impact of Female Career Achievement on Society

Statistics reveal an encouraging trend. Countries with higher rates of female career achievement experience not only reduced domestic violence tolerance but also lower dropout rates among female adolescents. This correlation points to the broader societal benefits of empowering women through education and professional opportunities. It’s not just about individual success; it’s about creating a more equitable and just society.

Potential Solutions

To capitalize on these findings, a concerted effort is needed to enhance educational opportunities for women and promote their advancement in the workforce. This could involve:

  • 1. Investing in Policies: Supportive policies that encourage women’s educational advancement and career achievement are crucial. Such policies could address both the educational outcomes of female adolescents and societal attitudes toward domestic violence.
  • 2. Promoting Educational Opportunities: Organizations should actively promote educational opportunities for women, potentially through initiatives like scholarships. These scholarships could be specifically aimed at encouraging gender diversity in senior positions, thereby addressing the gap in women’s representation at higher organizational levels.
  • 3. Monitoring and Validation: It’s important to continuously monitor educational outcomes and societal attitudes to validate the effectiveness of these initiatives. If the positive correlation between women’s career achievements, education, and societal outcomes holds, it provides strong evidence in support of these approaches.


The findings from recent studies are clear: investing in women’s education is not just a matter of individual empowerment but a strategic approach to addressing multiple social issues. Expanding efforts that promote opportunities for women can improve both education and mental well-being, leading to healthier and more equitable societies. It’s a call to action for policymakers, educational institutions, and organizations to prioritize and invest in women’s empowerment as a transformative strategy for societal advancement.



Unveiling tourism patterns: A data-driven exploration of infrastructure impact

Unveiling tourism patterns: A data-driven exploration of infrastructure impact

The intricate relationship between infrastructure development and tourism in Lebanon is a multifaceted issue, with various components playing a crucial role in the country’s ability to attract and satisfy tourists. An in-depth analysis of this interplay reveals several key areas of focus:

Communication Infrastructure

Urban areas in Lebanon face challenges with communication infrastructure, such as limited broadband access and unreliable networks. This hinders effective communication and limits access to essential services, impacting the tourist experience significantly.


Electricity Supply

Reliable electricity is essential for sustaining urban environments and attracting tourists. Inconsistent power supply and frequent outages disrupt daily life and tourism-related services, making it hard for areas to attract and retain tourists.


Water and Sewage Management

Water quality issues are prevalent across various regions in Lebanon. Tourist destinations, in particular, require immediate interventions to address substandard water quality and inefficient sewage systems. Such inadequacies not only affect environmental quality but also influence tourists’ destination choices.



Public Transportation

The state of public transportation varies across different regions in Lebanon. While some areas like Mount Lebanon exhibit developed public transportation infrastructure, other regions lag behind. This uneven distribution affects the ease of movement for tourists and impacts their overall experience.


Tourism and Infrastructure Alignment

There is a noticeable disparity between regions with high tourism appeal and the adequacy of their infrastructure. For instance, areas like Mount Lebanon and Beqaa, despite having high tourism indexes, show mismatches in sewage management and electricity supply, indicating a need for a more balanced development approach.

Survey Insights

Surveys reveal that Batroun, Byblos, and Beirut are preferred tourist destinations, highlighting the need for focused developmental efforts in these areas. Issues such as road safety and the perception of travel safety significantly influence tourist decisions.


Strategic Recommendations

To foster sustainable tourism growth, Lebanon needs targeted infrastructure development, especially in key tourist hubs. This includes improving transportation, accommodation, and telecom connectivity.
Sustainable water management practices and the establishment of efficient water treatment plants are crucial for addressing water quality issues.
Upgrading sewage systems in tourist-heavy areas is vital to prevent environmental degradation.
Ensuring a reliable electricity supply, potentially through renewable energy sources and modernized power grids, is essential for supporting the needs of tourist establishments.
Developing an efficient and accessible public transportation network, particularly in regions with high touristic potential, can significantly enhance the tourist experience.

Data-Driven Decision Making

Continuing to use data analysis and surveys is key to informing policy and investment decisions. This approach ensures that resources are distributed where they are most needed and can have the greatest impact, ultimately enhancing Lebanon’s appeal as a premier tourist destination and fostering sustainable growth.