Data Visualization

Blog of the Data Visualization & Communication Course at OSB-AUB

This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization” John Tukey

Unveiling tourism patterns: A data-driven exploration of infrastructure impact

Unveiling tourism patterns: A data-driven exploration of infrastructure impact

The intricate relationship between infrastructure development and tourism in Lebanon is a multifaceted issue, with various components playing a crucial role in the country’s ability to attract and satisfy tourists. An in-depth analysis of this interplay reveals several key areas of focus:

Communication Infrastructure

Urban areas in Lebanon face challenges with communication infrastructure, such as limited broadband access and unreliable networks. This hinders effective communication and limits access to essential services, impacting the tourist experience significantly.


Electricity Supply

Reliable electricity is essential for sustaining urban environments and attracting tourists. Inconsistent power supply and frequent outages disrupt daily life and tourism-related services, making it hard for areas to attract and retain tourists.


Water and Sewage Management

Water quality issues are prevalent across various regions in Lebanon. Tourist destinations, in particular, require immediate interventions to address substandard water quality and inefficient sewage systems. Such inadequacies not only affect environmental quality but also influence tourists’ destination choices.



Public Transportation

The state of public transportation varies across different regions in Lebanon. While some areas like Mount Lebanon exhibit developed public transportation infrastructure, other regions lag behind. This uneven distribution affects the ease of movement for tourists and impacts their overall experience.


Tourism and Infrastructure Alignment

There is a noticeable disparity between regions with high tourism appeal and the adequacy of their infrastructure. For instance, areas like Mount Lebanon and Beqaa, despite having high tourism indexes, show mismatches in sewage management and electricity supply, indicating a need for a more balanced development approach.

Survey Insights

Surveys reveal that Batroun, Byblos, and Beirut are preferred tourist destinations, highlighting the need for focused developmental efforts in these areas. Issues such as road safety and the perception of travel safety significantly influence tourist decisions.


Strategic Recommendations

To foster sustainable tourism growth, Lebanon needs targeted infrastructure development, especially in key tourist hubs. This includes improving transportation, accommodation, and telecom connectivity.
Sustainable water management practices and the establishment of efficient water treatment plants are crucial for addressing water quality issues.
Upgrading sewage systems in tourist-heavy areas is vital to prevent environmental degradation.
Ensuring a reliable electricity supply, potentially through renewable energy sources and modernized power grids, is essential for supporting the needs of tourist establishments.
Developing an efficient and accessible public transportation network, particularly in regions with high touristic potential, can significantly enhance the tourist experience.

Data-Driven Decision Making

Continuing to use data analysis and surveys is key to informing policy and investment decisions. This approach ensures that resources are distributed where they are most needed and can have the greatest impact, ultimately enhancing Lebanon’s appeal as a premier tourist destination and fostering sustainable growth.

Unleashing Africa’s Potential: A Deep Dive into Economic Growth, Workforce Equality, and Youth Empowerment

Unleashing Africa’s Potential: A Deep Dive into Economic Growth, Workforce Equality, and Youth Empowerment

Decent work and equal pay

Decent work and equal pay remain pivotal challenges in Africa, as nations strive to create job opportunities that are both equitable and sustainable. The quest to balance economic growth with social inclusion is evident in the varied landscape of female labor force participation and the proportion of wage and salaried workers across the continent.

In the visualization of Africa’s labor landscape, the contrast in female labor force participation is stark. Countries like Niger and Central African Republic show participation rates of 39.02% and 60.29% respectively, indicating a significant portion of women contributing to their economies. Yet, this is only a fragment of the picture. The proportion of wage and salaried workers offers another perspective on job security and equity in compensation. South Africa leads with 84.52%, hinting at a more structured and possibly equitable job market. However, in countries like Algeria, with a lower 16.51% female participation rate and a wage and salaried workers percentage of 68.61%, there’s an implied gap in decent work availability and fair pay, particularly for women. These numbers are not just data; they are indicators of the progress and challenges in achieving decent work and equal pay across the continent.

Youth Employment and Education

In Africa, the pursuit of Youth Employment and Education target confronts a complex tapestry of opportunity and challenge. As nations strive to significantly reduce the proportion of youth not engaged in employment, education, or training, the interplay between advancing educational attainments and the evolving job market becomes crucial to shaping the future workforce.

The juxtaposition of tertiary school enrollment against youth employment rates in African countries may reflect systemic challenges in aligning educational outputs with labor market demands. High enrollment numbers, such as those in Algeria and Tunisia, do not necessarily translate into employment, which could indicate a surplus of graduates with skills that do not meet the needs of the current job market or possibly a lack of job creation. On the other hand, countries like Ethiopia and Mali show high youth employment rates despite lower tertiary enrollment, which may suggest that young adults are entering the workforce earlier, possibly due to economic necessity or the availability of jobs that don’t require higher education. This scenario raises concerns about the quality of employment and whether these jobs can offer long-term stability and growth, which are crucial for sustainable economic development and poverty reduction.

Economic Productivity and Employment Growth

Economic Productivity and Employment Growth in Africa stands at a critical juncture. The region’s future hinges on its ability to diversify, innovate, and enhance technological capabilities to foster a labor market that is both vibrant and inclusive.

The visual contrasts GDP growth with employment-to-population ratios across various African nations, highlighting economic dynamism juxtaposed with labor market realities. Notably, countries like Egypt and Chad show significant GDP growth, yet this does not directly correlate with high employment ratios, underscoring the complex relationship between economic expansion and job creation. Conversely, Mozambique’s lower GDP growth accompanies the highest employment ratio, suggesting that economic growth rates may not always predict employment health. This dichotomy reveals the nuances of economic development and labor markets, indicating that growth does not automatically translate into widespread employment opportunities, a critical consideration for policy interventions.


The intricate balance between ensuring decent work and guaranteeing equal pay in Africa is a vivid reflection of the broader global struggle for economic equality and labor rights. Despite advancements in some areas, the disparity in female workforce participation and the varying percentages of wage and salaried workers across the continent underscore the ongoing challenges. This complexity necessitates a nuanced, multifaceted approach to policy-making that prioritizes both the creation of quality jobs and the assurance of fair compensation, particularly for underrepresented groups such as women. Only through such targeted strategies can sustainable economic and social progress be achieved.